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What is 5G ?


What is 5G ?



Dear All,
Our organization has arranged a contest, having topic "Imagine 5G" and i am participating in it.
Telecom gradation is mostly identified by there bit-rate. 1G was only voice, 2g was 256 Kbps, 3G is 2 Mbps and 4G is 70 Mbps or more..
Will 5G also identified by the same criteria (Bit rate, may be in Gbps or Tbps).
My feeling is generating Bitrates only will not benefit but
Telcos need Consumer Applications using this large bitrates to make proper Business case and Eco-cycle.
Does any have whitepaper of Teclco's roadmap to 5G ?
Please share any details regarding 5G.



I take your point. Increasing the bit rate always can increase the users' satisfaction. But the thing is that in economics, we have the concept of "diminishing marginal utility". Further increasing the bit rate without any other improvements might not raise too much users' satisfaction while it may require huge amount of investment. Therefore, we need some other types of improvements to attract the people to buy the 5G products or subscribe the 5G services.
I haven't read any material about 5G either but I think it's interesting to imagine the future wireless communications. Perhaps, it may involve a better integration with our daily life by allowing more flexible and complex network topology. For instance, more advanced vehicular networks might be crucial to the future vehicles which do not require drivers as well as the road safety. Wireless sensor network may help increasing the efficiency of power consumptions of houses with low deployment cost. I guess by relaxing the constraint of the conventional cellular topology, more interesting applications can be introduced.
nteresting thought and yes, 5G could be defined by services provided or available rather than only speed. As such from a regulatory point of view 5G could be seen as a service rather than a technology (or technologies as is the case with 3G. 4G seems destined to be defined as at least 2 technologies.)
There continues to be push back from national wireless regulators on calling 3G/4G (also known as IMT-2000, IMT-Advanced or after WRC-07 simply IMT) a service. Under the International Radio Regulations a service has a different status than a technology application which is the current regulatory view of 3G/4G. From a technology development perspective being considered a technology application may not seem relevent but from an operator's marketing perspective it could be significant. How would they differentiate their investment in 5G from another operator's enhanced 4G offering?
As the "5G" development process moves along it would be useful to begin work to change the regulatory view of IMT from an application to being a service. Or is simply being considered an "evolved 4G" technology application good enough?

I agree that 5G may be defined as a service and not on the bitrates. In any case, there is also the case that for enhanced bit rates, i.e. for more than what is considered for LTE-Advanced, there would be the need to allocate more radio spectrum. For that matter it would be quite difficult to find out a certain chunk of spectrum that could be enough to provide even more high data rates than what "4G" promises unless some other technologies are discontinued and still then ITU-R must designate that spectrum for an additional technology which takes still considerable time.

Cellular technology migrations from 0G to 4G happened not only based on throughput. Also based on services provided as many of the people mentioned here.
0G -> PTT, MTS, IMTS -> Only voice (Analog mobile communication system, NOT cellular communication system).
1G -> AMPS, NMT, TACS, etc. -> Only voice, Analog cellular communication, uses simple FM modulation. Uses only FDMA
2G -> GSM ->Mainly voice, less Data (max. 14.4kbps), Circuit switching, Digital cellular communications, uses GMSK moduations. Uses FDMA/TDMA
2.5G -> GPRS -> Only Data, Packet swithching technology, Digital cellular communications, uses GMSK with 4 ceding schemes (CS1 - CS4). Max. 171kbps theoritically. FDMA/TDMA
2.5G+ -> EDGE -> Data only, Packet Switching, Digital Cellular system, uses GMSK, 8PSK with 9 coding schemes (MCS1-MCS9). Max. 473kbps theoritically. FDMA/TDMA
3G -> UMTS -> Voice and Data. Circuit/Packet switching, W-CDMA. Uses BPSK, QPSK, and 16QAM also. Max. 2Mbps
3.5G -> HSUPA/HSDPA -> Data, WCDMA, higher Bandwidth, Uses BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM.
4G -> LTE -> (Now it is replaced by WiMAX as LTE is still under construction). WiMAX -> upto 70Mbps, OFDMA technology, sclable bandwidth upto 20MHz. Uses QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM.
Services also improved from only voice to SMS, MMS, Internet browsing, video conferencing, Mobile TV..
What can be achieved higher than this in 5G with respect to technology, throughput and services?
May be.. Technology point of view, 8x8 MIMO, Adaptive modulations, Cooperative diversity techniques, perfect Link adaptation/Power control algorithms, Incremental redundancy, can be improved. (Everything is available in 4G itself). But this can be fine tuned. Should provide 500Mbps with full mobility (say 300km/h).
Wavelet modulation instead of OFDM modulations can be used in flat fading environment.
Services point of view, video conferencing with fast mobility etc..

Courtesy: LTE-3GPP: linkedin


Coach and Mentor to Improve Performance

by Craig Mindrum
Coaching and mentoring can be effective ways to help diamonds in the rough - employees who appear to have potential, but who are underperforming for one reason or another.
David Joyner, executive vice president of sales and account services for pharmaceutical services company Caremark, said he occasionally sees employees who are "a bit rough on the edges. In many cases they are incredibly talented people, but they need refinement in a few specific areas that are holding them back."
A 360-degree feedback tool is one way to get them to notice those areas, but Joyner said, "They also need the personal coaching and modeling that shows them the right way. I've had some cases where we've had middle-of-the-road salespeople become our top performers, year in and year out. It's because they got that coaching and feedback early on in their careers."
Bruce Fisher, director of the Leadership Academy at Illinois Institute of Technology and director of an organizational psychology consulting practice, makes an important distinction between objectives for coaching and those for mentoring.
"Coaching is to a great degree targeted around specific developmental opportunities, or even behavioral issues with employees," Fisher said. "It's driven primarily by the organization's agenda and needs. With mentoring, on the other hand, the employee or protege takes on a role almost like a client; it's about his or her needs and career development. Mentoring takes more of a whole-person approach and thus is highly personalized to an individual."
That need for personalization becomes challenging when designing and delivering leadership development programs, however. Coaching has general lessons and thus can be incorporated into leadership training. Mentoring, on the other hand, can actually suffer if it's treated as a program.
"You can't structure a mentoring experience, match people up willy-nilly and tell them to go do it," Fisher said. "Research suggests mentoring is not effective when administered that way. An authentic mentoring experience is based on chemistry, charisma and mutual values; it happens or doesn't happen as part of the natural workings of a relationship." Can mentoring be taught? Maybe.
"There are certain types of leaders who have it in them to mentor effectively," Fisher said. "And there are others who just don't care about it and who aren't good at it. I don't think it's necessarily impossible to turn those people into effective mentors, though certainly it's difficult."
[About the Author: Craig Mindrum, Ph.D., is a strategic talent management consultant.]