Function of a half donut chart is no different than a regular column chart. But it looks much fancier than your standard column chart.
We need a basic dataset to start building our chart:
Even though we are building a half donut chart, we need to make a regular donut chart at first. Since this data is the half of our chart, we need to add a new column of data to make it complete. I added the new column as shown below:
I used 40 just to make biggest piece almost as big as half of the pie.
Now select range C3:E13 and insert a donut chart. The chart you see will look like the one below:
Press Switch Row/Column button from chart tools menu and it will look more like the chart we are making. Chart Tools menu will be activated after you click on the chart.
Now click on chart title and delete it. Do it for legend too. Then double-click on any of the donuts on your chart and set series options as shown below:
Our half donut chart is pretty visible at this point. All that left is some formatting. I used a grayscale color palette from Page Layout tab to get more shades of gray to use on my chart.
Next step is making unnecessary chart parts invisible. To select a part of a series for formatting, click on it once, then click on it again (not double-click). Then open format from chart tools and set shape fill as "No Fill". You should notice the selected part become invisible as you do this:
Now select another one and press F4. Same formatting will be applied to the selected part. You can format the whole chart with ease this way. When finished, your chart is supposed to look like this:
Now color the parts from darker to lighter gray using the same method used above. You need to color parts one by one this time. Here is the colored version of the chart above:
For the finishing touches, insert a textbox and paste contents of range C6:D15 into it. Using Notepad as a medium can make it a bit easier. Arrange contents of the textbox as a list and when finished place it next to your data series as shown below. Arrange font and font size to match it with your data series, so they will look as labels.
Half donut chart is almost finished. Add another textbox and input your chart title. Format it as you like and place it in the middle of the inner circle. Clicking on the innermost series will make the whole donut visible, thus can make positioning easier.
Here is the finished chart: