AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
AAL0 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 0 refers to raw ATM cells.
AAL1 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 1 supports constant bit rate, time dependent traffic such as voice and video.
AAL2 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 reserved for variable bit rate video transfer.
AAL3/4 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 3/4 supports variable bit rate, delay tolerant data traffic requiring some sequencing and/or error detection support.
AAL5 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5 supports variable bit rate, delay tolerant connection oriented data traffic requiring minimal sequencing or error detection support.
AARP AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
ADSP AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol
AEP AppleTalk Echo Protocol
AFP AppleTalk Filing Protocol
ARP/RARP Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
ASP AppleTalk Session Protocol
ATCP AppleTalk Control Protocol
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATP AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
BBACP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (PPP suite)
BAP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (PPP suite)
BCAST Broadcast Protocol (Novell protocols)
BCC Broadcast Call Control
BCP Bridging Control Protocol (PPP suite)
BGP4 Border Gateway Protocol (TCP/IP)
BICI BISDN Inter Carrier Interface (ATM PNNI Signaling)
BMP (Burst) Burst Mode Protocol (Novell protocols)
BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit
BRE Bridge Relay Encapsulation, proprietary Ascom Timeplex protocol that extends bridging across WAN links by means of encapsulation (Frame Relay).
BVCP PPP Banyan VINES Control Protocol (PPP suite)
CCCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (after the French)
CCP Compression Control Protocol (PPP suite)
CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (PPP suite)
CIF Cells in Frames (ATM over LAN)
COPS Common Open Policy Service
CTERM Command Terminal (DECnet)
DDAP Data Access Protocol (DECnet)
DCAP Data Link Switching Client Access ProtocolÂ
DCP Data Compression Protocol over Frame Relay
DCPCP DCP Control Protocol
DDP Datagram Delivery Protocol (AppleTalk)
DECnet Digital Equipment Corporation protocols developed to communicate between DEC minicomputers.
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (TCP/IP)
DIAG Diagnostic Responder protocol (Novell)
DLSw Data Link Switching (IBM SNA)
DNCP PPP DECnet Phase IV Control Protocol (PPP suite)
DNS Domain Name Server protocol (TCP/IP)
DSMCC Digital Storage Media Command and Control (Audio Visual over ATM)
DVB Digital Video Broadcasting
EECP Encryption Control Protocol (PPP suite)
ESIS End system to Intermediate System protocol (ISO protocols)
Ethernet LAN protocol synonymous with IEEE 802.3 standard
FFANAP Â Â Â Â Â Â Flow Attribute Notification Protocol
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface, standardized by ANSI
FTP File Transfer Protocol (TCP/IP)
FUNI Framebased UNI (User Network Interface)
GCC Group Call Control
GMM GPRS Mobility Management
GSM GPRS Session Management
GSMP General Switch Management Protocol (IP Switching)
GTP GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
HDLC High Level Data Link Control protocol developed by ISO, based on pioneering work by IBM on SDLC.
HPRAPPN High Performance Routing Advanced Peer to Peer Network, IBM network architecture for dynamic routing across arbitrary network topologies.
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol (TCP/IP)
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol (TCP/IP)
ICMPv6 revision of ICMP (TCP/IP)
ICP Internet Control Protocol (Banyan)
IDP Internet Datagram Protocol (XNS)
IFMP Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol (IP Switching)
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol (TCP/IP)
IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (TCP/IP)
IISP Interim Interswitch Signalling Protocol (ATM Signalling)
ILMI Interim Local Management Interface, bidirection exchange of management information between UMEs.
IP Internet Protocol, routing layer datagram service of the TCP/IP suite.
IPC InterProcess Communications protocol, datagram and reliable message delivery service for Banyan.
IPCP IP Control Protocol, responsible for configuring the IP parameters on both ends of the PPP link.
IPHC IP Header CompressionÂ
IPv6 revised version of IP (TCP/IP)
IPv6CP IPv6 PPP Control Protocol, responsible for configuring, enabling and disabling the IPv6 protocol modules on both ends of a PPP link.
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange, Novell's implementation of the Xerox Internet Datagram Protocol (IDP).
IPXCP IPX PPP Control Protocol, choose and configure the IPX networklayer protocol over PPP.
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network, all digital communications line that allows for transmission of voice, data, video and graphics, at very high speeds, over standard communication lines.
ISIS (ISO 10589) Intermediate System to Intermediate System, exchage of configuration and routing information to facilitate the operation of the routing and relaying functions of the network layer (ISO).
ISO International Standards Organization protocols defined by IEEE; complete sevenlayer protocol conforming to the OSI networking model.
ISOIP ISO Internetworking Protocol, includes builtin error signalling to aid in routing management.
ISOSP ISO Session Protocol, specifies procedures for a single protocol for the transfer of data and control information from one session entity to a peer session entity.
ISOTP (ISO 8073) ISO Transport Protocol
ISUP ISDN User Part of SS7, defines protocol and procedures used to seup, manage and release trunk circuits that carry voice and data calls over the public switched telephone network.
ITU Q.2931 Signalling International Telecommunications Union signalling standard for ATM to support Switched Virtual Connections. This is the signalling standard for ISDN.
L2F Layer 2 Forwarding protocol, permits the tunneling of the link layer of higher layer protocols (PPP suite).
L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol, used for integrating multiprotocol dialup services into existing ISP POP.
LAPB Link Access Protocol, Balanced, derived from HDLC and used to carry X.25 packets.
LAPD Link Access Protocol, Channel D, layer 2 protocol defined in CCITT.
LAPF Link Access Procedure F (Frame Relay), modified LAPD standard for Frame Relay.
LAT Local Area Transport protocol, designed to handle multiplexed terminal traffic to/from timesharing hosts (DECnet).
LAVC Local Area VAX Cluster protocol, communications between DEC VAX computers in a cluster (DECnet).
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LDP Label Distribution Protocol
LCP Link Control Protocol, establishes, configures and tests the data link connection (PPP suite).
LLC Logical Link Control protocol (IEEE 802.2), provides a link mechanism for upper layer protocols.
LQR Link Quality Report, specifies the mechanism for link quality monitoring with PPP.
M2UA used for backhauling of SS7 MTP2-User signalling messages over IP using Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
M3UA supports transport of SS7 MTP3-User sugnalling over IP using Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
MAPOS Multiple Access Protocol over SONETÂ / SDH
MARS Multicast Address Resolution Server (TCP/IP)
Megaco Media Gateway Control
MLP Multilink Procedure, added upper sublayer of the LAPB, operating between the packet layer and a multiplicity of single data link protocol functions (SLPs) in the data link layer (X.25).
MOP Maintenance Operation Protocol, utility services such as uploading and downloading system software, remote testing and problem diagnosis (DECnet).
MOUNT protocol used to initiate client access to a server supporting NFS.
MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group, ISO standards group dealing with video and audio compression.
MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching, set of procedures for augmenting network layer packets with "label stacks", thereby turning them into labeled packets.
MPOA Multi Protocol Over ATM, deals with efficient transfer of innersubnet unicast data in a LAN emulation environment.
MPPC Microsoft PointtoPoint Compression Protocol
MTP2 Message Transfer Part, Level 2, signalling link which together with MTP3 provides reliable transfer of signalling messages between two directly connected signalling points (SS7).
MTP3 Message Transfer Part, Level 3, connects Q.SAAL to the users (SS7 suite).
NBFCP PPP NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol, network control protocol responsible for establishing and configuring the NBF protocol over PPP.
NBP AppleTalk Name Binding Protocol, manages the use of names on AppleTalk networks.
NBMA NonBroadcast, MultiAccess.
NCP Novell NetWare Core Protocol, manages access to the primary NetWare server resources.
NDS NetWare Directory Services (Novell), globally distributed network database that replaces the bindery used in previous versions of NetWare.
NetRPC NetRemote Procedure Call, used to access VINES applications such as StreetTalk and VINES Mail (Banyan).
NFS Sun Network File System, file sharing application for the Sun protocol suite.
NHDR Network Layer Header, begins the frame used by RTP nodes.
NHRP NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol.
NSP Network Services Protocol, provides reliable virtual connection services with flow control to the network layer Routing Protocol (DECnet).
NTP Network Time Protocol, time synchronization system for computer clocks through the Internet network (TCP/IP).
OSINLCP OSI Network Layer Control Protocol, responsible for configuring, enabling and disabling the OSI protocol modules on both ends of the PPP link.
OSPF Open Shortest Path First, linkstate routing protocol used for routing IP (TCP/IP).
PAP Printer Access Protocol, manages the virtual connection to printers and other servers (AppleTalk).
PAP Password Authentication Protocol, provides a simple method for the peer to establish its identity using a 2way handshake (PPP suite).
PEP Packet Exchange Protocol, provides a semireliable packet delivery service that orients towards singlepacket exchanges (XNS).
PIM Protocol Independent MulticastSparse Mode (PIMSM)
PMAP Port Mapper protocol, manages the allocation of transport layer ports to network server applications (Sun).
PNNI Private NetworktoNetwork Interface, hierarchial, dynamic linkstate routing protocol (ATM).
POP3 Post Office Protocol version 3, permits workstations to dynamically access a maildrop on a server host (TCP/IP).
PP ISO Presentation Protocol, performs context negotiation and management between open systems.
PPP PointtoPoint Protocol, designed for simple links which transport packets between two peers.
PPP Multilink Multilink PointtoPoint Protocol, permits a system to indicate to its peer that it is capable of combining multiple physical links into a "bundle".
PPPBPDU PPP Bridge Protocol Data Unit, used to connect remote bridges.
PPTP PointtoPoint Tunneling Protocol, allows PPP to be channeled through an IP network (PPP).
QLLC Qualified Logical Link Control protocol, transfers IBM SNA data over an X.25 network.
RANAP - Radio Access Network Application Part is the Radio Netwok Layer sugnalling protocol for the Iu interface.
RIP Routing Information Protocol, maintains a database of network hosts and exchange information about the topology of the network (XNS).
RIP2 Routing Information Protocol, used by Berkeley 4BSD UNIX systems to exchange routing information. RIP2 derives from the Xerox protocol of the same name (TCP/IP).
RIPX Routing Information Protocol, used to collect, maintain and exchange correct routing information among gateways within the Internet (Novell).
RFC Request for Comments, a series of notes about the Internet, started in 1969 (when the Internet was the ARPANET). The notes discuss many aspects of computing and computer communication focusing in networking protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, but also including meeting notes, opinion, and sometimes humor. The specification documents of the Internet protocol suite, as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and its steering group (the IESG), are published as RFCs. Many of the TCP/IP protocols and PPP protocols are defined by rfc's.
RLOGIN Remote Login, allows UNIX users of one machine to connect to other UNIX systems across the Internet and interact as if their terminals are directly connected to the machines (TCP/IP).
RLP Radio Link Protocol
RM Cells Rate Management cells (ATM cells).
RND name of a company which uses a proprietary protocol header (RND) to transfer LAN protocols via WAN.
RP Routing Protocol, distributes routing information among DECnet hosts.
RPC Remote Procedure Call protocol, activates a function on a remote station and retrieves the result (Sun).
RSVP Resource ReSerVation setup Protocol, designed for an integrated services Internet (TCP/IP).
RTMP Routing Table Maintenance Protocol, manages routing information for AppleTalk networks.
RTP Routing Update Protocol, used to distribute network topology (Banyan).
RUDP Reliable UDP
RVP Remote Voice Protocol
SAP Novell's Service Advertising Protocol, provides information about what servers are available on the network.
SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part, offers enhancements to MTP level 3 to provide connectionless and connectionoriented network services, as well as to address translation capabilities (SS7).
SCP Session Control Protocol, manages logical links for DECnet connections.
SCSP Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â is a routine protocol in the TCP/IP family.
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SDP Session Description Protocol
SDCP PPP Serial Data Control Protocol, responsible for configuring, enabling and disabling the SDTP modules on both ends of the pointtopoint link.
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control protocol, developed by IBM to be used as the layer 2 of the SNA hierarchical network.
SER Serialization packet, ensures that a single version of NetWare is not being loaded on multiple servers.
SIP SMDS Interface Protocol, threelevel protocol that controls access to the network.
SIP (VoIP) Session Initiation Protocol
SLP Servise Location Protocol
SMB Server Message Block, Microsoft presentation layer protocol providing file and print sharing functions for LAN Manager, Banyan VINES and other networking operating systems.
SMDS Switched Multimegabit Data Service, broadband networking technology developed by Bellcore.
SMPP Â Â Short Message Peer to Peer
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, mail service modeled on the FTP file transfer service (TCP/IP).
SMS Short Message Service (UMTS).
SMS Short Message Service.
SNA Systems Network Architecture, introduced by IBM to provide a framework for joining together many mutually incompatible IBM products for distributed processing.
SNACP SNA PPP Control Protocol, responsible for configuring, enabling and disabling SNA on both ends of the pointpoint link (PPP).
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol, developed by the Internet community to allow diverse network objects to participate in a global network management architecture.
SPANS Simple Protocol for ATM Network Signalling, developed by FORE Systems for use in ATM networks.
SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol, provides a reliable virtual connection service for private connections (Banyan).
SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol, provides reliable transport delivery with flow control (XNS).
SPX Sequential Packet Exchange, Novell's version of Xerox SPP. It is a transport layer protocol providing a packet delivery service for third party applications.
SRB Source Routing Bridging, proprietary header of Bay Networks which passes Token Ring information over WAN lines.
SRP Spatial Reuse Protocol.
SS7 Signalling System 7, a common channel signalling system.
STP Spanning Tree Protocol, prevents the formation of logical looping in the network (DECnet).
TALI Transport Adapter Layer Interface
TCAP Transaction Capabilities Application Part, enables the deployment of advanced intelligent network services by supporting noncircuit related information exchange between signalling points using the SCCP connectionless service (SS7).
TCP Transmission Control Protocol, provides a reliable stream delivery and virtual connection service to applications through the use of sequenced acknowledgement with retransmission of packets when necessary (TCP/IP).
TDP Tag Distribution Protocol, a two party protocol that runs over a connection oriented transport layer with guaranteed sequential delivery.
TELNET Terminal emulation protocol of TCP/IP.
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol, supports file writing and reading (TCP/IP).
THDR Transport Layer Header, used by RTP endpoints to provide correct processing of the packet (SNA).
Timeplex (BRE2) Bridge Relay Encapsulation, proprietary Ascom Timeplex protocol that extends bridging across WAN links by means of encapsulation (Frame Relay).
Token Ring LAN protocol where all stations are connected in a ring and each station can directly hear transmissions only from its immediate neighbor.
UDP User Datagram Protocol, provides a simple but unreliable message service for transactionoriented services (TCP/IP).
UNI User Network Interface, an interface point between ATM end users and a private ATM switch, or between a private ATM switch and the public carrier ATM network.
Van Jacobson compressed TCP protocol which improves the TCP/IP performance over low speed serial links.
VARP VINES Address Resolution Protocol, used for finding the node Data Link Control address from the node IP address (Banyan).
VCI Virtual Channel Identifier.
VGCS Voice Group Call Service
ViVID MPOA proprietary protocol of Newbridge which provides bridged LAN Emulation and routed LAN Emulation functionality.
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
WAE Wireless Application Environment
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WCCP Web Cache Coordination Protocol
WDOG Watchdog protocol, provides constant validation of active workstation connections and notifies the NetWare operating system when a connection may be terminated as a result of lengthy periods without communication (Novell).
Wellfleet BOFL Wellfleet Breath of Life, used as a line sensing protocol.
Wellfleet SRB Source Routing Bridging, proprietary header of Bay Networks which passes Token Ring information over WAN lines.
WSP Wireless Session Protocol
WTLS Wireless Transport Layer Security
WTP Wireless Transaction Protocol
X.75 Signalling system which is used to connect packet switched networks (such as X.25) on international circuits.
XNS Xerox Network System protocols, provide routing capability and support for both sequenced and connectionless packet delivery.
XOT Cisco Systems' X.25 over TCP.
YP (NIS) Sun Yellow Pages protocol, known now as Network Information Service, is a directory service used for name lookup and general table enumeration.
ZIP AppleTalk Zone Information Protocol, manages the relationship between network numbers and zone names.
Ok, so the title is a little sensationalist, but I had to get you here somehow so you could see the most bookmarked web-based Twitter applications of the moment!! Note that these has been put together on the basis of the number of saved bookmarks on delicious and clearly not THE definitive list based on registered users or traffic.
- twitter (13566)
- twittervision (4282 overall)
- twitterfeed (3867 overall)
- twhirl (3319 overall)
- tweetscan (2655 overall)
- twistori (2631 overall)
- twitter-search (2500 overall)
- tweetdeck (2439 overall)
- twitpic (2244 overall)
- hellotxt (1979 overall)
- twitterrific (1729 overall)
- twitterholic (1612 overall)
- tweetstats (1549 overall)
- twellow (1527 overall)
- twitturly (1460 overall)
- twitter-grader (1431 overall)
- twitscoop (1410 overall)
- quotably (1334 overall)
- twitterlocal (1319 overall)
- monitter (1285 overall)
- twubble (1264 overall)
- twittearth (1191 overall)
- grouptweet (1180 overall)
- hashtags (1124 overall)
- tweetburner (1113 overall)
- twitbin (1093 overall)
- twittercounter (1081 overall)
- tweetlater (994 overall)
- terraminds-twitter-search (966 overall)
- tweetvolume (944 overall)
- qwitter (935 overall)
- friendorfollow (929 overall)
- twitthis (902 overall)
- twist (883 overall)
- twitter-karma (854 overall)
- xpenser (822 overall)
- twittermail (813 overall)
- twemes (803 overall)
- tweetbeep (803 overall)
- twitdir (770 overall)
- twitxr (767 overall)
- twitterfox (760 overall)
- hahlo (688 overall)
- twinfluence (654 overall)
- tweetmeme (652 overall)
- tweetwheel (647 overall)
- twuffer (636 overall)
- botanicalls-twitter-diy (631 overall)
- twittersnooze (629 overall)
- twtpoll (614 overall)
- mrtweet (609 overall)
- twittercal (605 overall)
- remember-the-milk-for-twitter (594 overall)
- snitter (593 overall)
- twitterpatterns (585 overall)
- strawpollnow (575 overall)
- twitterfone (547 overall)
- whoshouldifollow (539 overall)
- twitbacks (539 overall)
- tweetr (526 overall)
- twitdom (525 overall)
- tweetree (522 overall)
- favrd (520 overall)
- election.twitter (506 overall)
- peoplebrowsr (501 overall)
- tweetclouds (498 overall)
- pockettweets (498 overall)
- cursebird (488 overall)
- twistory (480 overall)
- twitterverse (470 overall)
- tweetgrid (470 overall)
- twittermap (466 overall)
- tweetag (458 overall)
- twilert (457 overall)
- twitterposter (456 overall)
- loudtwitter (443 overall)
- twitterfriends (439 overall)
- spaz (431 overall)
- be-a-magpie (421 overall)
- tweetake (420 overall)
- twitter-friends-network-browser (419 overall)
- matt (414 overall)
- twitter100 (411 overall)
- colorwar2008 (411 overall)
- twitteroo (408 overall)
- tweetrush (389 overall)
- fuelfrog (385 overall)
- twitter-blocks (383 overall)
- tweeterboard (375 overall)
- spy (373 overall)
- twerpscan (372 overall)
- splitweet (371 overall)
- twittergram (364 overall)
- twittgroups (362 overall)
- brightkit (361 overall)
- twitlinks (359 overall)
- twitternotes (358 overall)
- tweetwasters (354 overall)
- foodfeed (352 overall)
- twitterblacklist (348 overall)
- twitku (347 overall)
Thanks to MOMB for doing all the hard work.
Microsoft Excel 2007 keyboard shortcuts
Microsoft Excel 2007
|CTRL+SHFT+(||Unhides any hidden rows within the selection.|
|CTRL+SHFT+)||Unhides any hidden columns within the selection.|
|CTRL+SHFT+&||Applies the outline border to the selected cells.|
|CTRL+SHFT_||Removes the outline border from the selected cells.|
|CTRL SHFT ~||Applies the General number format in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+SHFT+$||Applies the Currency format with two decimal places (negative numbers in parentheses) .|
|CTRL+SHFT+%||Applies the Percentage format with no decimal places.|
|CTRL+SHFT+^||Applies the Exponential number format with two decimal places.|
|CTRL+SHFT+#||Applies the Date format with the day, month, and year.|
|CTRL+SHFT+@||Applies the Time format with the hour and minute, and AM or PM.|
|CTRL+SHFT+!||Applies the Number format with two decimal places, thousands separator, and minus sign (-) for negative values.|
|CTRL+SHFT+*||Selects the current region around the active cell (the data area enclosed by blank rows and blank columns). In a PivotTable, it selects the entire PivotTable report.|
|CTRL+SHFT+:||Enters the current time.|
|CTRL+SHFT+||Copies the value from the cell above the active cell into the cell or the Formula Bar.|
|CTRL SHFT Plus ( )||Displays the Insert dialog box to insert blank cells in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+Minus (-)||Displays the Delete dialog box to delete the selected cells.|
|CTRL+;||Enters the current date.|
|CTRL+`||Alternates between displaying cell values and displaying formulas in the worksheet.|
|CTRL+'||Copies a formula from the cell above the active cell into the cell or the Formula Bar.|
|CTRL+1||Displays the Format Cells dialog box.|
|CTRL+2||Applies or removes bold formatting.|
|CTRL+3||Applies or removes italic formatting.|
|CTRL 4||Applies or removes underlining in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+5||Applies or removes strikethrough.|
|CTRL+6||Alternates between hiding objects, displaying objects, and displaying placeholders for objects.|
|CTRL+8||Displays or hides the outline symbols.|
|CTRL+9||Hides the selected rows.|
|CTRL 0||Hides the selected columns in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+A||Selects the entire worksheet. If the worksheet contains data, CTRL+A selects the current region. Pressing CTRL+A a second time selects the current region and its summary rows. Pressing CTRL+A a third time selects the entire worksheet. When the insertion point is to the right of a function name in a formula, displays the Function Arguments dialog box. CTRL+SHFT+A inserts the argument names and parentheses when the insertion point is to the right of a function name in a formula.|
|CTRL+B||Applies or removes bold formatting.|
|CTRL+C||Copies the selected cells. CTRL+C followed by another CTRL+C displays the Clipboard.|
|CTRL+D||Uses the Fill Down command to copy the contents and format of the topmost cell of a selected range into the cells below.|
|CTRL+F||Displays the Find and Replace dialog box, with the Find tab selected. SHFT+F5 also displays this tab, while SHFT+F4 repeats the last Find action. CTRL+SHFT+F opens the Format Cells dialog box with the Font tab selected.|
|CTRL+G||Displays the Go To dialog box. F5 also displays this dialog box.|
|CTRL+H||Displays the Find and Replace dialog box, with the Replace tab selected.|
|CTRL I||Applies or removes italic formatting in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+K||Displays the Insert Hyperlink dialog box for new hyperlinks or the Edit Hyperlink dialog box for selected existing hyperlinks.|
|CTRL+N||Creates a new, blank workbook.|
|CTRL O||Displays the Open dialog box to open or find a file. CTRL SHFT O selects all cells that contain comments in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+P||Displays the Print dialog box. CTRL+SHFT+P opens the Format Cells dialog box with the Font tab selected.|
|CTRL+R||Uses the Fill Right command to copy the contents and format of the leftmost cell of a selected range into the cells to the right.|
|CTRL+S||Saves the active file with its current file name, location, and file format.|
|CTRL T||Displays the Create Table dialog box in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+U||Applies or removes underlining. CTRL+SHFT+U switches between expanding and collapsing of the formula bar.|
|CTRL+V||Inserts the contents of the Clipboard at the insertion point and replaces any selection. Available only after you have cut or copied an object, text, or cell contents.|
|CTRL+W||Closes the selected workbook window.|
|CTRL+X||Cuts the selected cells.|
|CTRL Y||Repeats the last command or action, if possible in Microsoft Excel.|
|CTRL+Z||Uses the Undo command to reverse the last command or to delete the last entry that you typed. CTRL+SHFT+Z uses the Undo or Redo command to reverse or restore the last automatic correction when AutoCorrect Smart Tags are displayed.|
Microsoft Excel 2007
|F1||Displays the Microsoft Office Excel Help task pane. CTRL+F1 displays or hides the Ribbon, a component of the Microsoft Office Fluent user interface. ALT+F1 creates a chart of the data in the current range. ALT+SHFT+F1 inserts a new worksheet.|
|F2||Edits the active cell and positions the insertion point at the end of the cell contents. It also moves the insertion point into the Formula Bar when editing in a cell is turned off. SHFT+F2 adds or edits a cell comment. CTRL+F2 displays the Print Preview window.|
|F3||Displays the Paste Name dialog box. SHFT+F3 displays the Insert Function dialog box.|
|F4||Repeats the last command or action, if possible. CTRL+F4 closes the selected workbook window.|
|F5||Displays the Go To dialog box. CTRL F5 restores the window size of the selected workbook window in Microsoft Excel.|
|F6||Switches between the worksheet, Ribbon, task pane, and Zoom controls. In a worksheet that has been split (View menu, Manage This Window, Freeze Panes, Split Window command), F6 includes the split panes when switching between panes and the Ribbon area. SHFT+F6 switches between the worksheet, Zoom controls, task pane, and Ribbon. CTRL+F6 switches to the next workbook window when more than one workbook window is open.|
|F7||Displays the Spelling dialog box to check spelling in the active worksheet or selected range. CTRL+F7 performs the Move command on the workbook window when it is not maximized. Use the arrow keys to move the window, and when finished press ENTER, or ESC to cancel.|
|F8||Turns extend mode on or off. In extend mode, Extended Selection appears in the status line, and the arrow keys extend the selection. SHFT+F8 enables you to add a nonadjacent cell or range to a selection of cells by using the arrow keys. CTRL+F8 performs the Size command (on the Control menu for the workbook window) when a workbook is not maximized. ALT+F8 displays the Macro dialog box to create, run, edit, or delete a macro.|
|F9||Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks. SHFT F9 calculates the active worksheet in Microsoft Excel. CTRL ALT F9 calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks, regardless of whether they have changed since the last calculation. CTRL ALT SHFT F9 rechecks dependent formulas, and then calculates all cells in all open workbooks, including cells not marked as needing to be calculated. CTRL F9 minimizes a workbook window to an icon.|
|F10||Turns key tips on or off. SHFT F10 displays the shortcut menu for a selected item in Microsoft Excel. ALT SHFT F10 displays the menu or message for a smart tag. If more than one smart tag is present, it switches to the next smart tag and displays its menu or message. CTRL F10 maximizes or restores the selected workbook window.|
|F11||Creates a chart of the data in the current range. SHFT+F11 inserts a new worksheet. ALT+F11 opens the Microsoft Visual Basic Editor, in which you can create a macro by using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA).|
|F12||Displays the Save As dialog box.|
Other useful shortcut keys
Microsoft Excel 2007
|ARROW KEYS||Move one cell up, down, left, or right in a worksheet. CTRL+ARROW KEY moves to the edge of the current data region (data region: A range of cells that contains data and that is bounded by empty cells or datasheet borders.) in a worksheet. SHFT+ARROW KEY extends the selection of cells by one cell. CTRL+SHFT+ARROW KEY extends the selection of cells to the last nonblank cell in the same column or row as the active cell, or if the next cell is blank, extends the selection to the next nonblank cell|
|BACKSPACE||Deletes one character to the left in the Formula Bar in Microsoft Excel. Also clears the content of the active cell. In cell editing mode, it deletes the character to the left of the insertion point.|
|DELETE||Removes the cell contents (data and formulas) from selected cells without affecting cell formats or comments. In cell editing mode, it deletes the character to the right of the insertion point.|
|END||Moves to the cell in the lower-right corner of the window when SCROLL LOCK is turned on. Also selects the last command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible. CTRL+END moves to the last cell on a worksheet, in the lowest used row of the rightmost used column. If the cursor is in the formula bar, CTRL+END moves the cursor to the end of the text. CTRL+SHFT+END extends the selection of cells to the last used cell on the worksheet (lower-right corner). If the cursor is in the formula bar, CT|
|ENTER||Completes a cell entry from the cell or the Formula Bar, and selects the cell below (by default). In a data form, it moves to the first field in the next record. Opens a selected menu (press F10 to activate the menu bar) or performs the action for a selected command. In a dialog box, it performs the action for the default command button in the dialog box (the button with the bold outline, often the OK button). ALT+ENTER starts a new line in the same cell. CTRL+ENTER fills the selected cell range|
|ESC||Cancels an entry in the cell or Formula Bar in Microsoft Excel. Closes an open menu or submenu, dialog box, or message window. It also closes full screen mode when this mode has been applied, and returns to normal screen mode to display the Ribbon and status bar again.|
|HOME||Moves to the beginning of a row in a worksheet. Moves to the cell in the upper-left corner of the window when SCROLL LOCK is turned on. Selects the first command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible. CTRL+HOME moves to the beginning of a worksheet. CTRL+SHFT+HOME extends the selection of cells to the beginning of the worksheet.|
|PAGE DOWN||Moves one screen down in a worksheet. ALT+PAGE DOWN moves one screen to the right in a worksheet. CTRL+PAGE DOWN moves to the next sheet in a workbook. CTRL+SHFT+PAGE DOWN selects the current and next sheet in a workbook.|
|PAGE UP||Moves one screen up in a worksheet. ALT+PAGE UP moves one screen to the left in a worksheet. CTRL+PAGE UP moves to the previous sheet in a workbook. CTRL+SHFT+PAGE UP selects the current and previous sheet in a workbook.|
|SPACEBAR||In a dialog box, performs the action for the selected button, or selects or clears a check box. CTRL+SPACEBAR selects an entire column in a worksheet. SHFT+SPACEBAR selects an entire row in a worksheet. CTRL+SHFT+SPACEBAR selects the entire worksheet. If the worksheet contains data, CTRL+SHFT+SPACEBAR selects the current region. Pressing CTRL+SHFT+SPACEBAR a second time selects the current region and its summary rows. Pressing CTRL+SHFT+SPACEBAR a third time selects the entire worksheet. Wh|
|TAB||Moves one cell to the right in a worksheet. Moves between unlocked cells in a protected worksheet. Moves to the next option or option group in a dialog box. SHFT TAB moves to the previous cell in a worksheet or the previous option in a dialog box in Microsoft Excel. CTRL TAB switches to the next tab in dialog box. CTRL SHFT TAB switches to the previous tab in a dialog box.|
1. Dress: The absolute first impression you will make on someone will be through your clothing, because that is what is seen from a distance, and cannot change throughout your meeting. Make sure to dress according to the situation-don' t over or under dress-and maintain within the limits of good taste. If you aren't sure if what you're wearing looks good, ask people for an honest opinion. One last thought: always, and I mean always, pull up your pants
2. Hygiene: Take a shower! Shave! Brush your teeth! You must be fully bathed and groomed before you meet with someone for the first time, because scruffy looking people generally don't seem as neat and mature. Pay attention to the little elements like breath: keep a pack of mint gum with you wherever you go, and periodically check to make sure you aren't killing bugs every time you breathe out. If you sweat heavily, keep a small stick of deodorant/anti- perspirant close, and if you notice you're stinking you can freshen up. People notice the minutiae!