July 2011
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419 Scam – Frequently asked Questions (FAQ)

URL: http://www.joewein.de/sw/419faq.htm


    General information:
  1. What is this FAQ about?
  2. I received an email telling me I won in a lottery. Is this a scam?
  3. How do I know if an email is a scam?
  4. Why did I received this email?

    Detailed information about the fraud:
  5. I have already given personal data to the criminals. What will they do with it?
  6. I have already sent my phone number and address. What should I do?
  7. I have been asked for my bank account. Will the scammers steal money from it?
  8. I have not been asked for money or a bank acount. Is it still a scam?
  9. I can't find the address in my email on your blacklist. Is it still a scam?
  10. I have received a Bank draft / cashier's check / Money order. What should I do?
  11. I already sent money. How can I get it back?

    Fighting back against crime:
  12. How can I help fight this scam?
  13. I want these guys arrested. What must I do?
  14. How can I report scams to you?
  15. How can I help you gather evidence?
  16. If this a known scam, why are these guys not arrested?

    Other questions:
  17. Since when has this scam been around?
  18. What is a "mugu"?
  19. Scam terminology: "Guymen", lads, mugus, baiters and "jokers"
  20. Is anybody really so stupid as to fall for this scam?
  21. How can I stop receiving scam mails?
Are you sick of spam too? Do you want it stopped now?
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What is this FAQ about?
This collection of frequently asked questions (FAQ) tries to answer questions about the Advance Fee Fraud ("419 scam"). The scam is named after the section of the Nigerian penal code dealing with fraud.

I received an email telling me I won in a lottery. Is this a scam?
Yes. Fake lotteries are the most common type of "419" scam. Consider the following (if after reading the list below you're still not sure, try submitting it to the
Scam-O-Matic, our Instant Online Fraud Check or visit the fraudwatchers.org forum and ask for help there).

  • Did you buy a lottery ticket from this company? Did you even hear about them before? If not, it is obviously a fraud. The primary purpose of lotteries is to raise money. Therefore they require people to buy tickets in order to have a chance to win. Lottery companies do not organize "promotional" lotteries, they advertise. A free "promotional" lottery that you only hear about if you win would only promote the lottery to a handful of customers. That doesn't make any sense.
  • What information can you find about the company? Perform a Google search for the name of the lottery, the "claims agent" or his/her company. Do the top hits mention "fake", "fraud", "scam" or "419" or are there no matches at all? Also search for the "winning numbers" listed in that email. Do you find several "winning notifications" that look a lot like the one you received? How would that be possible if it was a real lottery where numbers change every week? Here is a search form for you to use:
  • In general, lotteries do not use email to notify winners. The normal procedure is for the winner to watch the media for the announced winning numbers and then to present his paper ticket to a lottery sales agent or to the lottery operator itself. Typically winners have six months to a year to come forward.
  • Was the email addressed to "none", to multiple recipients or even to the email address of the sender or did it say "Recipient list suppressed"? This indicates that the same email was sent to a large number of recipients. This would be highly unusual for a real lottery win notification.
  • Does the email tell you to contact a different email address or phone number for claiming your prize? Why would a real lottery do that? If the lottery claims to be based in the UK, the Netherlands or in Spain, does it use .co.uk, .nl or .es email addresses and website names?
  • Is the contact telephone number a mobile phone or special service number that forwards calls worldwide? This includes any of the following:
    • UK: +44-70xx (call redirection)
    • Netherlands: +31-6xx (mobile)
    • Spain: +34-6xx (mobile)
    • Belgium: +32-4xx (mobile)
    • South Africa: +27-7x or +27-8x (mobile)
    • Nigeria: +234-80x (mobile)
    Why would a major company give you a mobile phone as the first point of contact?
  • Are you being rushed? Is the claims deadline only a few weeks or even days away? Normal lotteries allow several months to a year for prizes to be claimed. In typical scams the claims deadline is only two to six weeks away, just enough time to extract money out of a "winner".
  • Does it mention a computer ballot of several tens of thousands of email addresses from America, Europa, Africa, Asia and Australia/New Zealand? There aren't any legitimate email lotteries of the kind described in such scam emails.
  • Does the email mention a "Sweepstakes International Program", an "International Claims Department", a "Fiduciary Agent" or a "Zonal Coordinator"? These terms are typical of fake lotteries.
  • Does the email mention a "mix up of some numbers" and a "security protocol", which requires you to keep all details secret until you've received your prize? This is so that other people won't point out that it's a fraud.
  • Are you being asked to pay hundreds of Euros or thousands of Pound before the money can be released? This usually happens after the second or third email you receive. Wake up and smell the rat! Real lotteries don't charge you for winning, they just write you a check. Any due taxes are either deducted at source or will be paid by you after you receive the money. If you supposedly won a lottery and you're asked to pay any amount of money towards receiving the prize then it's a scam and the prize isn't real.
  • Real lotteries don't send notifications by email, which is considered too unreliable to use for important financial information.
How do I know if an email is a scam?
The general rule of thumb is, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. There are a number of what we call "red flags", markers that show up in typical scam emails, such as certain phrases or certain ways of doing things. You can learn to spot these by yourself. For lottery winning notification scams, please see here. You can check any type of suspicious email by pasting it into the "Scam-O-Matic", our Instant Online Fraud Check form or by posting it in the fraudwatchers.org forum where anti-fraud experts will be ready to give your their advice (look for a section called "Scam or Not? Ask Our Advice Here" and start a new thread there). The Scam-O-Matic will provide instant feedback and is able to recognize more than 80% of scams submitted to it. Its detection rate is even better if you supply a complete set of email messages and not just the most recent message or a portion of a message.

Why did I received this email?
Spammers send spam to make money. "419" scammers send spam to defraud people. To make as much money as possible, they hit as many email addresses as possible. If you received "419" spam or any other type of spam, it usually means a) your email address can be found on a website (try googling for it!) and b) that you are not using an effective spam filter.

  • Most email addresses targetted by spammers are listed as contact addresses on a website, in a link such as this one. Spammers use special address harvesting software to search websites for email addresses and for links. Harvesting addresses off websites is actually illegal under US Federal Law. The software adds all addresses to a file and then repeats the process for all pages mentioned in links. The initial page for the search is usually found via a search engine, in order to start off with pages that contain many addresses. Guestbooks are a prime target for address harvesters (see "What is a "mugu"?").
  • Effective spam filters, such as jwSpamSpy, which we use to track domains and emails addresses that identify spam, can recognize "419" scam emails by looking for typical phrases, by analyzing sender addresses and by looking at source addresses in message headers. They can stop scam emails without harming legitimate mail.
Once your address has become public knowledge, it's impossible to put the cat back into the bag. You either need to change email addresses (which is about as painful as changing phone numbers), or you need to use an effective filter. If you have found our website through a search for a name, email address or telephone number contained in a 419 scam that you have received, chances are you would never have seen that scam email if you'd been using our spam filter.
I have already given personal data to the criminals. What will they do with it?
It appears that the main purpose of asking the victim for personal data is not identity theft (i.e. a criminal comitting a crime in your name) but to lend the scam an aura of authenticity. The scammers print fancy looking "certificates" with the victim's name and postal address on it, data that he/she has previously gave to the scammers when first contacted. It's pure psychology.

Nevertheless, the chance of secondary abuse can not be excluded, especially for passport data and bank account information. Sometimes in Nigerian fraud the scammers send scans of passports or other forms of ID to "prove" their identity. We've seen copies of US, UK, South African and other African passports or driver's licenses used. This doesn't happen very often. We suspect some of these passport copies were supplied by victims of fake lottery scams.
There is a danger that bank account numbers are used for check fraud, i.e. for printing fake checks using victims' bank account information. This applies especially to North America, where personal checks are very common. Having said that, we have not personally come across such cases yet.
Other than passport scans we have not seen any evidence that the data collected during fake lottery scams is systematically used for other crimes. We can't give you any guarantees it won't happen, but at least it's not something that seems very common at this time.
If you would like to get further information about possible abuse of the data, take a printout of the form you filled in to your local police station or to your bank manager to get their professional advice.
I have already sent my phone number and address. What should I do?
Stop taking calls and don't reply to any emails from the scammers. You can tell them you know it's a scam and that you've talked to the police, if you want to get rid of them quickly. No need to mention our website to these criminals, though... The scammers want to make money. They can only make money by dealing with people who don't realize it's a scam. They would be wasting their time by staying in touch with you or doing anything other than look for new victims.

I have been asked for my bank account. Will the scammers steal money from it?
We don't have any current reports of any such thefts in the case of fake lottery scams, though there is no guarantee that the data you have provided will not be used for other scams in the future. Be warned that there are some such reports for "classic" 419 scams, even though they are not very commmon. For example, in scams were the 419 victim is offered to pose as an unpaid contractor or heir to a dead foreigner, the paperwork and ID submitted for those bogus claims is sometimes used in conjunction with bank account information for falsifying wire transfer instructions to the victim's bank to transfer money out of the account. To judge the risk of that, please discuss your concerns with your bank manager.

In general, the main purpose of asking for the bank account is only to encourage the victim's belief that he/she is really about to receive a fortune in that account very soon, in order to melt his/her resistance to sending money to the scammers. When the victim does indeed provide the number of an account, this indicates to the scammers that he/she has fallen for the scam and trusts them. Once the scammers find that a person is prepared to provide bank account details, name of the spouse and a copy of his/her driver's license or passport to them, it won't take long until they will ask him/her to send cash by Western Union because they think the person is firmly on the hook and ready to be reeled in.
I have not been asked for money or a bank acount. Is it still a scam?
Probably. Fake lottery scams and other variants of "419" fraud follow a fixed script that works in stages. In most cases the victim is not asked for money immediately, so as not to alert the spam recipients, who might report the email addresses to the webmail providers and get them shut down. Here is a typical sequence:

  1. Victim is notified via spam that he/she won a lottery prize and is told to contact a "claims agent".
  2. Victim contacts "claims agent", who replies and tells victim to fill in a form with personal data.
  3. Victim complies and is told that the winning is confirmed and he/she can receive the money, but only after paying various handling charges to the agent.
  4. Victim sends money by Western Union, criminal takes money and ignores complaints after prize is not paid out.
In some cases there is a third party, such as a fake bank or courier service, adding another stage. It can get pretty elaborate, with fees increasing after each payment, if there are multiple payments. All parties (other than the victim of course) are either the same person or members of the same gang.
I can't find the address in my email on your blacklist. Is it still a scam?
Probably. On average we add more than 250 addresses of "419" scammers to our list per day and there must be many more that we never see. This means there probably are thousands of criminals out there producing such scam emails, living off the proceeds.

If the address in your email isn't listed yet, it doesn't mean it's genuine. It probably just means it hasn't been reported to us yet. See the following links:
Please also report 419 spam to the abuse department of the company that provides their email accounts. For example, if the mail originates from mrjephills6@tiscali.co.uk then write to abuse@tiscali.co.uk, quoting the full text of the mail including message headers (in Outlook Express you get the full message source via Ctrl+F3; use cut+paste to insert that into your email).
I have received a Bank draft / cashier's check / Money order. What should I do?
Some fake lottery scams as well as other scams by gangs from Nigeria involve counterfeit monetary instruments, such as fake cashier's checks or US Postal Money Orders (MO). Counterfeit instruments are also used in other scams from Nigeria, such as fraudulent purchases of cars, motor bikes and other vehicles as well as horses and other animals. By pretending to first make a payment to the victim, the criminals overcome a reluctance by the victim to send cash to a total stranger in another country.

So how does this work? Any funds made available by a bank against a deposited check or MO become due again when that check or MO bounces (i.e. is recognized as fake by the bank that supposedly issued it). This could be weeks or even months after those funds were wired to another country by the victim as requested by the criminals. The victim will in effect have wired money borrowed from the bank and will be fully liable for that amount. Here is an example:

The fake checks or MOs are normally mailed from Canada, Nigeria or the UK, though other countries are possible too. They may be part of an elaborate scheme where some person or institution lends funds to a "lottery winner" (the victim), who is unable to come up with the amount demanded for bogus "processing charges" or a minimum deposit for a fake "private bank". They are also used in purchases of big ticket items such as cars. The buyer will send a check that vastly exceeds the value of the car and request the seller to cash it and wire the excess amount to a person who will take care of shipping the purchased car to the buyer. Other examples are "debt repayment" from a third party by check or collecting payments from customers on behalf of a bogus company in Europe, Asia or Africa.
Never deposit such checks or money orders or you could be charged with fraud yourself. In fact under US laws even possession of fake checks and money orders is illegal. Contact your local police and give them check as well as printouts of all emails you have received from the criminals. It's better not to touch the checks or MOs: There may be useful fingerprints on them.
Forward us copies of the emails that preceeded the arrival of the check or MOs. We may be able to identify which other scams this is connected to. See:

I already sent money. How can I get it back?

In most cases the answer is you can't.
Most online scams are not seriously investigated by the police. Basically as soon as they find out the criminals are based abroad they give up, because the effort to track down the criminals would be considerable and the chances of success too uncertain. In the United States the FBI only gets involved in online scams such as fake lotteries, fake inheritance claims, etc. with criminals based in Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire if damages exceed about $100,000. This unfortunately means that such crimes are almost without risk for the criminals. But even in cases where criminals are arrested and convicted in court it is rare that their victims are compensated, because the money has often disappeared by then.
Personally I don't know of a single case where a 419 victim has got his/her money back.
Realistically the only chance to get money back is if you have made a wire transfer a few hours ago and the money hasn't been picked up yet and you phone Western Union / MoneyGram / the bank to cancel the transfer. If this happens soon enough all you lose is the cost of transfer, with the remainder refunded. Once the money has been picked up, it is gone forever.
That's why we try to put as much information online as possible, so victims find out it's a scam *before* they send money.
Beware of any emails, often pretending to originate from official sources in West Africa, Europe or in the USA which tell you they know about the scam and request details about it to help you get your money back. These usually are sent by the very same criminals who cheated you in the first place. The objective is to get you to send even more money, because the "help" never comes for free. You won't get your money back. Instead you'll lose even more money. The criminals are extremely cruel and without conscience, driving many of their victims into ruin.
How can I help fight this scam?
What can I do to protect others from this scam?
Since you've discovered this website, you know that a suspicious email you received is a scam. Many others do not know and are still at risk. Here is how you can help:

  • Report spam: Report any 419 spam to the webmail provider used to send the spam or to receive replies (see abuse contact list). For example, if the mail originates from mrjephills6@tiscali.co.uk or if that address is listed as a person to contact then write to abuse@tiscali.co.uk, quoting the full text of the mail including message headers (in Outlook Express you get the full message source via Ctrl+F3; use cut+paste to insert that into your email).
    In particular, report any contact addresses mentioned in the body of the spam itself, such as "claims agents" of fake lotteries. These are the most important mailboxes the scammers use. The sooner we get them shut down, the fewer victims there will be.

  • Inform others: Talk about this scam to your family and colleagues at work.

  • Pinging: Contact the scammers from a disposable Yahoo account to get them to reply, then forward the reply as evidence to us (see here for more details).
  • Scambaiting: You can help collect evidence against scammers and waste their time by contacting them from a webmail account (Warning: Do not use your normal email account to do this!). For example, you can create an account at Yahoo.com (link) and then paste the email you received into a message you compose, as if you had received the spam in your Yahoo account. Once you receive a reply, forward a copy of the reply from the criminals to us. To forward an email in Yahoo Mail as an attachment, hold down the Control key while clicking on the Forward button, then address the email to 419@419scam.org. Receiving such replies from "claims agents", "barristers" and "securities companies" allows us to track the true location from which the scammers send their emails (we don't need the emails you sent to the scammers, only their replies). If you really want to waste scammers' time, visit http://www.scambaits.net and read their advice on the art of scambaiting :-)

  • Support our efforts: Thousands of people have been alerted to this scam through our website. They used a search engine and found an email address, a name or a telephone number from a 419 email listed by us. Compiling and publishing such information to educate people like you and your family is a time-consuming process for us. Unlike the criminals we take on, we don't make any money from the time we spend. If you appreciate what we are doing and would like to support our efforts, please make a donation (PayPal or credit card - $10, $20 or any amount!) to us. Thank you!

  • Filter spam: You can stop receiving 419 and other spams and at the same time support our efforts by purchasing a copy of jwSpamSpy, our spam filter for Windows 2000/XP (US$29.95 / €25 / £18). It has a 30 day free trial period and supports email programs such as Outlook Express or Microsoft Outlook on Windows (not available for Yahoo.com or AOL.com).

  • Report to the police: Report 419 spam to law enforcement in your own country, such as the local police or (in the US) the US Secret Service. An overview of reporting addresses for various countries can be found at the
    If you need to contact law enforcement in Nigeria, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), a body set up by the Nigerian government in 2002, may be helpful:

  • Spamtraps: If you have a website you can embed email addresses on pages on your site so they are found by address harvesting software or spammers. We can provide you with an email address that you can hide there or you can create your own email account and have it forward email to one of our spamtraps. Please contact us for details! The more fraud spams we receive, the more criminals we can warn people about.
  • Sabotage: Many fraud emails give contact phone numbers. Carefully check the local time before you make any calls, because who would want to be woken up at 3am? If the number starts with +44 70 or +234 80 then check the local time in Lagos, if the number starts with +31 6 or +31 4 check the local time in Amsterdam or Madrid. Some people reply to 419 spam emails and ask the criminals to call them back, giving them phone numbers of other 419 scammers to call. Some people mail large files such as digital snaps to the contact addresses listed in the emails. This can fill up their mailboxes pretty quickly, preventing emails by potential victims from reaching the criminals.
  • Muguito / Mugu Marauder: Most fake bank websites set up by criminals will be shut down by the webhosters when contacted. Sites that stay up get targetted by Muguito / the Mugu Marauder, software that you can run from your broadband connection to kill fake banks. If you have flatrate access without bandwitdth cap you can leave it running over night to deprive fraud sites of bandwidth.
I want these guys arrested. What must I do?
This almost never happens - arrest rates for this type of crime are very low. There are a number of reasons for this. This type of crime crosses national borders and uses a relatively anonymous medium, the internet as well as cellphones. There is no crime location as such and investigations are very technical in nature. There is still too little specialized expertise within the police forces. Also, as a white collar crime it does not get the same kind of resources as violent crime or the ideologically driven so-called "war on drugs".

To get an investigation started you have to report the case to law enforcement in your own country, no matter what phone numbers are listed in the emails. Some countries have institutions that specialize in fraud or online crimes. For example, in the United States the Secret Service investigates financial fraud cases. In other countries special sections of the regular local or state police force will handle reported cases.
An overview of reporting addresses for various countries can be found at the
If this a known scam, why are these guys not arrested?
If you want to find out for yourself, take a printout of a 419 scam email to a police station and try to report a criminal fraud. The officers will basically tell you to delete or ignore such emails when you get them, but not do much more. The sad fact is, the police does not have the resources or the training to cope with the current volume of online scams (though billions of dollars seem to be available for fighting a fruitless "war on drugs", arguably itself an advance fee fraud, but I digress...).

There is no real crime location in online fraud, which raises issues of under which jurisdiction the crime was committed. In most cases the victim and the criminals live in different countries, which means multiple police forces have to cooperate. This is complicated by the fact that classic 419 havens such as Nigeria or other West African countries have major corruption problems. Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is in the middle of a civil war and some cities in Nigeria are basically "no go"-areas for the Nigerian federal police.
419 fraud is an industry that on some estimates makes hundreds of millions of dollars per year. It employs thousands of crooks, who vastly outnumber the police officers who investigate their scams. This is not just a few young guys going to an internet cafe to cheat some foreigners. In many cases, African internet cafes are owned by the gang bosses, who pay young men hourly wages for "working" in 419-sweatshops. These bosses are politically well connected and pay off the right people.
Therefore, don't expect this problem to go away any time soon. Instead, expect it to get worse. To use a classic phrase from Nigeria scams, these scams are almost "100% RISK FREE" for the scammers.
How can I report scams to you?
We have received many emails from near-victims who backed out of a fake lottery or other advance fee scam or fraudulent business transaction after they did a search for an email address, name or phone number and came across it on our 419 blacklist. We publish such data to warn potential victims about such scams. The more scammers we can get listed, the more crimes will be prevented. You too can help!

If you've received what looks like a 419 spam (basically, any email from a stranger that promises an unexpected fortune), you're welcome to send us a copy. Please make sure to include the five character string [419] in the subject line of the email (you can follow this with further details, such as name of the fake lottery or other company, alias or email address of the criminal, phone numbers, etc). Examples:
Subject: [419] MICROSOFT EMAIL LOTTERY INTERNATIONAL Subject: [419] james_robin1@hotmail.com Subject: [419] 

We strongly prefer mails that are submitted as an attached email. That way we will receive an exact copy of the mail you received, as an attachment. We will put that into our database and process it with our spamfilter, which not only lets us verify it looks like a real 419 mail, it also extracts the 419 sender address automatically and we can find out which email provider the criminals used and other information useful for tracking them. Alternatively, you can use copy and paste using the Scam-O-Matic webform, see further below.
How to report fraud by e-mail using Outlook Express
If you are using Outlook Express, open or select the fraud email, then click "Message" and "Forward as Attachment". Type our address <419@419scam.org> into the To: field, use [419] and optional extra information as the subject (see examples above) and click the "Send" button.

How to report fraud by e-mail using Yahoo mail
If you are using Yahoo mail (Classic), open the email, hold down the Control key and click on the "Forward" button. Type our address <419@419scam.org> into the To: field, use [419] as the subject and click the "Send" button.

How to report fraud by e-mail using Incredimail

How to report fraud using the "Scam-O-Matic" webform

Please do not use the normal "Forward" function of your email program, if possible. Please do not paste email contents into Word documents. If you do not know how to forward an email as an attachment or none of this makes any sense to you, use either use the "Scam-O-Matic" webform or the normal "Forward" function. With the latter, please make sure to include the five character string [419] in the message subject. If you do use the "Forward as attachment" function, you should still mark the message subject as [419].
Note: If you forward a 419 scam mail in the body of your email to us (inline forward) without marking the subject then in some cases the mail is indistinguishable by software from a real 419 email. It may get intercepted by our filter because it looks too much like spam from a spammer. You sure don't want that to happen, because in effect you would have accidentally submitted your own email address to the blacklist ;-)
Therefore, submit the mail as an attachment, or to the webform or mark the subject and you'll be safe!
You should also report 419 scam addresses to the abuse-department of the email provider they used. In addition, you can contact law enforcement or appropriate government institutions in your country. See the following for more details:

How can I help you gather evidence?
If you receive a fraudulent "lottery winning notification" or "business proposal" (i.e. any offer of easy money as described on our website), you can help us gather evidence by "pinging" (see
definition) the scammers and forwarding the response to us. This wastes the scammers time and helps us to track them. Follow these steps carefully:

  1. Create a Yahoo email account using an assumed name (you only need to do this once for multiple scam emails you receive). Either the main Yahoo.com website or national variants (yahoo.co.uk, yahoo.ca, yahoo.fr, yahoo.de) are fine. You should probably turn off the Yahoo spamfilter. Not all webmail services are suitable (e.g. Hotmail is not), but Yahoo is perfect for this.
  2. Open Yahoo! Mail, select "Compose" and paste the body of the scam email into the new email. Paste the email address from either the body of the message ("claims agent", "confidential private email address", etc.) or from the sender address, if there no explicit reply address, into the "To:" field.
  3. Add a suitable subject line (this can be copied from the original scam email, maybe with a "Re: " prefix). Then add some brief text at the beginning to make this look like a "real" response, but don't overplay it. Examples (please vary these and use your imagination):
    • "Hello, I'd like to claim my lottery prize, see message below"
    • "This business proposal sounds interesting. Please send me more information!"
    • "Is this a joke or is it real?"
    • "how soon can i get this money? i could really do with it !!!"
    Then click "Send".
  4. You should get a reply within 24-72 hours, often from a different email address. Open that reply from the scammer and forward it to us (we only need the scammer's reply, NOT your email to the scammer):
    • Mark an identifying portion of the mail, such as the lottery name or alias of the scammer and copy it to the clipboard.
    • Hold down the control key while clicking the "Forward" button.
    • Change the subject to the five characters [419] followed by a space and then paste the lottery name or alias of the scammer from the clipboard (anything after [419] is optional).
    • Address the email to 419@419scam.org (it's quickest if you add this address to the Yahoo address book.
    • Click "Send".
You will find that the scambaiting account soon starts attracting new 419 spam, i.e. initial spam messages, not just replies you requested. You can also forward those to us.

The term "ping" originally meant the high pitched sound used by a submarine to measure distances to objects, such as the seabed or another vessel. By bouncing sound off an object and measuring the runtime the sonar system could determine how far apart it was. The same term is used on the internet to describe a minimal packet sent to another host to test connectivity and speed.
from by by107fd.bay107.hotmail.msn.com with HTTP;
Tue, 03 May 2005 11:39:47 GMT

Since when has this scam been around?
Current 419 fraud emails involving "Nigeria fraud" and fake lotteries trace back to an idea known as the "Spanish prisoner scam", which goes back to before 1914 (World War I) and before it the "Letter from Jerusalem scam" documented by Vidocq after the French Revolution:

Modern variants of the scam started circulating from Nigeria by fax and postal mail in the 1980s and netted quite a few, often quite wealthy victims worldwide during the 1990s. The scam crossed over into email in the late 1990s. The oldest 419 email in our own collection was sent in March 2000. By May 2001 we were getting more than one 419 email per week already. In January 2002 we started receiving more than one per day. Now it's about 40 per day in our main email account and 400-900 per day in our total spam feed.
What is a "mugu"?
The word "mugu" (which means "fool") is used by junior "419" scammers who collect addresses for 419 scams from website guestbooks. These so called "guymen" use the term in non-sensical entries to mark guestbooks already harvested for spamming. The idea is to prevent fellow scammers from offering competing but equally dubious "BUSINESS PROPOSALS" to the same victims (which might alert them to the fact that both proposals are scams). Email addresses in such gustbooks, or at least all addresses in entries posted before the "mugu" posting are supposed to be off-limits to other scammers.

If you have a guestbook on your site, make sure email addresses are not displayed to other visitors, so that your visitors are spared "419" and other spam. If you have log files for guestbook postings, track the IP addresses used for "mugu" postings and block them in the .htaccess file of your website if they happen to be from Nigeria, Togo or Côte d'Ivoire.
Scam terminology: "Guymen", lads, mugus, baiters and "jokers"
Who is who:

Is anybody really so stupid as to fall for this scam?
This is not a matter of intelligence. Some of these scammers are actually very good at what they are doing. They know what buttons to push, psychologically speaking. The techniques used by the scammers have been developed and refined over many years.

You would be surprised just how many people from all walks of life have become victims of this scam. Some are businessmen or academics. In some cases people have even committed other crimes, such as stealing money from their employers, to cover the advance fee payments, hoping they would be able to repay the money from the promised fortune before anybody would notice.
It is not merely a matter of intelligence, but of circumstances and psychology. If you are an immigrant or someone for whom English is not your first language it is more difficult to pick up on signs of fraud. We have found that some people who contact us about the scam really need to be talked out of it. This is especially true if someone is in a difficult economic situation. A sudden lottery win would appear like the solution to all their problems. If you are a mother with a handicapped child or a husband with a sick wife without medical insurance, or if you run a small business going though hard times then a million dollars dangling in front of your nose can develop a magic attraction that gets the better of common sense.
The scammers take advantage of vulnerable people and they know it.
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How can I stop receiving scam mails?
Reading 419 spam emails can be somewhat entertaining at first, but the novelty value soon wears off. Then you will hit the delete key to get rid of these nuisance mails, day after day. Blocking by sender address or reporting mailboxes to the providers are only partial solutions, because "419" senders create new email accounts all the time - we collect almost 300 new addresses every day! More intelligent tools are required. A good spam filter can be a highly effective tool for keeping fraudulent mails out of your inbox. The vast majority of "419" sender addresses published on our website is gathered by automatically scanning hundreds of thousands of emails every day. The spam filter we developed and use is available as a commercial product for your desktop (for Windows 2000/XP and with ISPs that provide POP3 access).

jwSpamSpy - email spam filter for Windows 2000/XP and POP3 mailboxes

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1. Commit to Raising A Moral Child
How important is it for you to raise a moral child? It's a crucial question to ask, because research finds that parents who feel strongly about their kids turning out morally usually succeed because they committed themselves to that effort. If you really want to raise a moral child, then make a personal commitment to raise one.

2. Be a Strong Moral Example
Parents are their children's first and most powerful moral teachers, so make sure the moral behaviors your kids are picking up from you are ones that you want them to copy. Try to make your life a living example of good moral behavior for your child to see. Each day ask yourself: "If my child had only my behavior to watch, what example would he/she catch?" The answer is often quite telling.

3. Know Your Beliefs & Share Them
Before you can raise a moral child, you must be clear about what you believe in. Take time to think through your values then share them regularly with your child explaining why you feel the way you do. After all, your child will be hearing endless messages that counter your beliefs, so it's essential that he/she hears about your moral standards. TV shows, movies, newspapers, and literature are filled with moral issues, so use them as opportunities to discuss your beliefs with your child.

4. Use Teachable Moments
The best teaching moments aren't ones that are planned—they happen unexpectedly. Look for moral issues to talk about as they come up. Take advantage of those moments because they help your child develop solid moral beliefs that will help guide his behavior the rest of his life.

5. Use Discipline as a Moral Lesson
Effective discipline ensures that the child not only recognizes why her behavior was wrong but also knows what to do to make it right next time. Using the right kind of questions helps kids expand their ability to take another person's perspective and understand the consequences of their behavior. So help your child reflect: "Was that the right thing to do? What should I do next time?" That way your child learns from his mistakes and grows morally. Remember your ultimate goal is to wean your child from your guidance so he or she acts right on his or her own.

6. Expect Moral Behavior
Studies are very clear: kids who act morally have parents who expect them to do so. It sets a standard for your child's conduct and also lets her know in no uncertain terms what you value. Post your moral standards at home then consistently reinforce them until your child internalizes them so they become his or her rules, too.

7. Reflect on the Behaviors' Effects
Researchers tell us one of the best moral-building practices is to point out the impact of the child's behavior on the other person. Doing so enhances a child's moral growth: ("See, you made her cry") or highlight the victim's feeling ("Now he feels bad"). The trick is to help the child really imagine what it would be like to be in the victim's place so he or she will be more sensitive to how his or her behavior impacts others.

8. Reinforce Moral Behaviors
One of the simplest ways to help kids learn new behaviors is to reinforce them as they happen. So purposely catch your child acting morally and acknowledge his or her good behavior by describing what he or she did right and why you appreciate it.

9. Prioritize Morals Daily
Kids don't learn how to be moral from reading about it in textbooks but from doing good deeds. Encourage your child to lend a hand to make a difference in his world, and always help him or her recognize the positive effect the gesture had on the recipient. The real goal is for kids to become less and less dependent on adult guidance by incorporating moral principles into their daily lives and making them their own. That can happen only if parents emphasize the importance of the virtues over and over and their kids repeatedly practice those moral behaviors.

10. Incorporate the Golden Rule
Teach your child the Golden Rule that has guided many civilizations for centuries, "Treat others as you want to be treated." Remind him or her to ask himself before acting, Would I want someone to treat me like that? It helps him or her think about his behavior and its consequences on others. Make the rule become your family's over-archingmoral principal
Source: http://moralsandethics.wordpress.com/2007/09/11/10-tips-for-raising-moral-children/

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One of the most severely limiting beliefs that many of us have is that the person we were yesterday is the person we have to be today. This belief keeps us tied to our past mistakes, habits, and limitations. 

We somehow buy into the notion that if we weren't successful yesterday, we certainly can't be successful today or tomorrow.

If you can see how ridiculous and self-defeating this belief is, you can make an instant shift toward success. What prevents us from tapping into this potential is our own mental ties to the past. Letting go of your past is like taking a set of heavy chains from around your neck.

Our past has no power other than the power we give it. One of the most dynamic and significant changes you can make in your life is to make the commitment to drop all negative references to your past, to begin living now. The positive energy you create may shock you. New doors and opportunities will open.

As your past habits creep into your consciousness, simply acknowledge them and let them go. Focus on what you can do today, right now in this moment.

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Are you often around negative people? Here are some tips on
handling them or other conversations that sap your energy and don't
inspire success.

1) Steer the conversation

If a friend starts being negative, try to steer the conversation in
a more positive way. For example, if a friend starts complaining
about the rain say, "Yes, but I love the way it makes all my
flowers grow."
For every negative thing you hear, retaliate with a positive take
on the situation. Perhaps the person doesn't realize just how
negative they really are.

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As per below artile blood donation improves your cholestrol level, blood pressure level, get rid of excess iron, saves someones life, reduce chances of suger, liver problems etc... so please donate blood every 3 months approximately.

Blood donation, the voluntary act of allowing one's blood to be drawn out of body has many advantages besides giving that wonderful feeling of saving someone's life. Most of the time it is an act of charity, though sometimes many people donate blood for money and other incentives. The blood donated is stored in blood banks, to be subsequently used for transfusion.

No doubt the first and foremost advantage of donating blood is the exalted feeling of saving someone's life. If we donate the little excess blood in our body, it could save someone's life without creating any problem for us. Instead it would help to alleviate some major health problems like heart diseases. Blood donation is an excellent way to get rid of excess iron accumulated in our body due to its overconsumption. Excess iron in the body can stimulate the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for causing damage to body cells and tissues. Free radicals are also associated with many diseases like heart diseases and cancer.

Iron overloading is also thought to increase the risk of heart diseases. Besides, iron oxidizes cholesterol, which is harmful for the arteries. Hemochromatosis is a genetic disease characterized by excess accumulation of iron in the tissues due to improper metabolism. The disease can cause damage to many organs like pancreas, adrenal glands, etc. It may also cause diabetes, liver diseases and heart diseases. So, donating blood on a regular basis would help you to regulate the level of iron in your body. Studies have shown that donating blood regularly can be beneficial for the heart and circulatory system and can reduce the risk of heart diseases, especially among young people.

Besides, blood donation also burns the extra calories and reduces your cholesterol level. After donating blood, the count of blood cells decreases in our body, which stimulates the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells in order to replenish the loss. So, it stimulates the production of new blood cells and refreshes the system.

Before donating blood, your hemoglobin level will be tested. If it is low, then you will not be allowed to donate blood. Besides hemoglobin, your blood pressure level and body weight will also be checked. In addition, your blood will also be examined for detecting the presence of five diseases, namely, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Syphilis, HIV/AIDS and malaria. If you are not suffering from these diseases, only then you will be allowed to donate your blood.

There are no major disadvantages of donating blood, except that sometimes one may experience a drop in blood pressure due to hypovolemia (a state of reduced blood volume), which may necessitate cancellation of donation. Sometimes, one may also experience mild nausea or dizziness for a short while. But if you compare the health benefits and mental satisfaction that comes from saving a life, you will feel that benefits of this act of charity is not only restricted to the recipient, but also helps the donor immensely.


How often can one give blood?
Regulations in the United States allow people to donate whole blood once every 56 days. The waiting period between donations can be different for other blood components. For example, donating only platelets in a process called apheresis requires only a 3 day wait before a person can give again. Donating two units of red blood cells through a similar process doubles the waiting period to 112 days.

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Charging your phone the usual way is too boring for you? Then consider the Hatsuden-Nabe, manufactured by a Japanese company called TES NewEnergyCorporation. It's basically a pot with a USB port, and it can turn heat that would normally be wasted into power that you can use to charge your cell phone (or other USB gadgets).
TES says that an iPhone, for example, takes 3-5 hours to be charged completely. They pitch the pot by saying that it could be used in the case of an emergency or in areas with no power.
The pot is safe to be used over open fire, too. According to the company, such flames can reach 900°F, but just 212°F are actually needed to boil water (the difference is turned into power via a thermoelectric module).
The 16cm pot went on sale in Japan costs $280.

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Ask yourself this: do you become nervous when you are placed in the spotlight? Do strangers make you shudder? Does the simple thought of talking in front of people make you want to run to the nearest restroom? Well guess what -- you're not alone! Many people in the world suffer from mild to extreme shyness -- and are struggling to overcome it. Remember that breaking out from that shell doesn't magically happen overnight. It takes time, effort, and of course, the desire to change. Following are some tips to assist you in overcoming shyness.
Figure out what makes you feel shy. Do you become shy in front of new audiences? When learning a new skill? When venturing into a new situation? When surrounded by people you know and admire? When you don't know anyone somewhere? Try to pinpoint the thoughts that go through your head right before the shyness hits. Then come up with some "I" statements that you can repeat to yourself, like a mantra, to head off those thoughts: "I can do this", "I look good", "I have something to offer", etc.
Build your self confidence. Everyone has some special gift or trait to offer to the world. It may sound corny, but it's true. Think about what you know, what you can do, and what you have accomplished, rather than fixating on how you look, sound, or dress. Keep in mind that everyone, even the "beautiful people", has something about themselves or their life that they don't like. There's no particular reason why your "problem" should make you shy while their "problem" doesn't make them shy.
o    Get comfortable. Surround yourself with people who bring out the best in you, and build up your confidence through them. Eventually, this will translate to other situations being more comfortable.
o    Close your eyes and visualize a situation where you might be shy. Now, in your mind's eye, make yourself feel confident. Do this often, and for different situations. This is most effective if you do this daily, especially in the morning. It might feel silly, but athletes use visualization to develop their skills, so why not you?
o    Maintain close bonds with your friends, as they can be there for you as you crack out of your shell. They'll be glad to help and encourage you with your progress. 3
Look and act approachable. Convey an open, friendly attitude with your body language.
o    Smile and make eye contact. A simple smile in the direction of a stranger may brighten your day, and it will brighten theirs, too! Smiling is a friendly way to acknowledge others, and it makes a pretty good lead-in to start a conversation with anyone, stranger or friend. It breaks the ice and loosens up your facial muscles, too.
o    Practice good posture and speaking clearly. Standing tall gives the world the impression that you are self-confident and receptive to others. Speaking clearly will help avoid the potential embarrassment of needing to repeat what you said due to mumbling or talking too quietly.
o    Laugh often, but only at things you find genuinely amusing. It will help ease any tension you may be feeling and will make you feel more relaxed.
o    Don't look preoccupied. Don't work on papers, text or do your make-up if you want someone to talk to you. 4
Set goals for yourself. Focus on small, daily accomplishments, then gradually become more daring.
o    Make a list of situations that make you feel anxious. Order them so that those things that cause you the least anxiety are first and those that cause you the most anxiety are last. Once you have a list of 10-15 stressful situations, start working through them, one-by-one. The first few "easier" situations will help build your confidence so that you can continue moving to more difficult situations on your list. Don't worry if you have to go backwards on the list sometimes; take it at your own pace, but make an effort to push yourself.
o    Introduce yourself to one new person each day. It is often easier to talk with strangers, at least briefly. After all, you may never see them again, so who cares what they think about you?5
Make new friends. Talk to somebody you would not normally think about having a conversation with. Try to find people who share one or more of your interests and find excuses to talk to them. It is great practice for more daring behavior. Initiate conversation with a simple starter, such as, "That's a nice bag, where did you get it?" or "It's really nice outside, don't you think?" Most people are good-natured and will be welcoming to your advances. People often indicate that they are interested in conversing by starting this way, so learn to take the bait when it arises, and try to say as much in response as possible.
Try doing stuff you never dreamed you would. Doing something really outlandish, like sky diving, will: a) provide an endorphin rush; and b) give you a story to tell when you are making conversation with people. And if you can find the courage to do something that big, then something like talking to a cute girl/guy should seem easy. 7
Don't compare yourself to others. - The more you compare yourself to others, you will feel that you are not able to measure up and the more intimidated you will feel, which will make you shyer.
Follow the rules, but don't overdo it - You should actually let yourself go out of the box a bit and loosen up. You don't have to be uptight about everything you do. If you are trying to conform to the standards wherever you go, you'll probably have feeling that you are not doing something right and are more likely to clam up. Try not to over obsess on what everyone thinks about you. Nobody really cares and people do like fun and exciting people. That makes this world more exciting. Just follow the rules at the basic level, such as dress nicely when you are going to a funeral or such.
  • Just know that everyone, at least most of us, are shy to some level the difference is the degree, and know that at some age this will happen but soon it will go away so don't worry and stress about it you can change if you want to. you might be saying its hard but to your surprise its extremely easy.*
  • Remember that shyness is an emotion, not a permanent personality trait! You have the power to change your feelings of shyness and act in a bolder manner.
  • There's nothing wrong with being shy, but there's nothing wrong with being outgoing either!
  • You can also overcome shyness permanently, by using methods base on emotional autosuggestion.
  • Deep breathing helps overcome nervousness.
  • Focus more on logic, try to avoid being overwhelmed by emotions.
  • Keep working at it. It may take you time to feel more comfortable, don't get discouraged.
  • As time passes, you'll notice that you've actually beaten a bit of that shyness. Think of it as a motivation to keep on!
  • Remember, if you find the courage to speak and not be afraid you will become more comfortable with that concept and eventually act that way almost all the time.
  • If you think everyone is looking at you, such as when crossing the road or walking through a public place, watch someone else do the same thing and really take note to see if other people are watching that person. You will be surprised to realize that we are not that noticed by others in the grand scheme of things!
  • Don't be afraid to seek professional help; group counseling, individual counseling, and therapy can help you along the way. Sometimes it's more than just shyness, and it's important to realize that. Social Anxiety Disorder is often seen as "extreme shyness", so make sure that you know what you have.
  • Smile often. People will think of you as more approachable, and you will do better socially. Smile when people talk to you so they know you're interested in conversation. NOTE: This can be overdone and if you smile too hard or too much it can be creepy.
  • Give yourself lots of time to talk. Speaking slowly gives you more time to think about what to say, as well as often adding weight to your words.
  • Shyness is sometimes seen as classy.
  • Many children grow out of their shyness.
  • Perhaps your shyness comes from stage fright? If you're having difficulties speaking in front of an audience, it is a good idea to choose a person in the audience that you feel comfortable around, and keep your eyes on them the entire time, as if your speech were directed at them. Eventually, you will be able to let your eyes roam around the room, connecting with each member of the audience.
*   If it is too difficult to look at anyone in the audience, try focusing on an object amidst or near the audience, such as a spot on the wall behind them.
  • Overcome stage fright by imagining you are someone else, such as a favorite celebrity you admire. Picture yourself as that person until you feel comfortable onstage.
  • When talking to someone you admire, be confident and be yourself. Share interest you both enjoy, it should break the ice and you`ll become great friends at first!
  • Tell yourself how far you've come from where your shyness began. If you used to be really shy, and now you're a little bit less, tell yourself that's such a big accomplishment because losing your shyness isn't easy!
  • Playing games is a great way to slowly break out of your shell and talk to people.
  • If you're shy because you are scared of what people might say about you, they can also do that when you're not shy. The fact is that people make mistakes all the time! Don't be afraid, people have to accept you for who you are.
  • Sometimes, shyness can be a serious obstacle to overcome. Be prepared for quite some work.
  • Shyness could be a cause of being bullied and that could make shyness worse.
  • If you were known for being shy amongst family members and friends, watch out for the harmless teasing. Some may be uncomfortable with you existing outside the category they've put you in, in their own minds. Ignore them. They mean well, but don't let them scare you back into your shell!
  • Remember, you are human just like everyone else. Someone else might have way more problems than you but still be more outgoing than you. Just be human, start speaking your mind, and don't care about what people think about you. At least they're thinking about you.