August 2009
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SWOT Analysis – Pakistan Telecom Industry

Published by Arsalan Mir on August 20, 2009 under Mobile CompaniesPakistan,Telecommunications

SWOT analysis stands for analyzing the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a certain industry or company. In this post we do the SWOT analysis of the Telecom Industry of Pakistan. In upcoming posts we will go in detail of individual companies and discuss the problems and how to make use of the opportunities.


  • Exponential growth.
  • Skilled Human Resource at low-cost.
  • Access to Infrastructure – optical network and satellite links.
  • Favorable policies (to some extent) and regulator.
  • Strong international brand names.


  • Quality of Service.
  • Low revenue per user (ARPU).
  • Customer retention.
  • No clear strategic direction.
  • Poor organizational structure.
  • No research and development programs.
  • Employee skill inconsistency.
  • Very low employee morale.


  • Huge market size.
  • Local handset manufacturing.
  • Making technology accessible to all (e.g. broadband).
  • Adopt latest technologies.
  • Removal of international trade barriers.
  • Adopting MVNO.


  • Recession in economy.
  • Inconsistent and adhoc decisions from regulatory authorities.
  • Political Instability, Security issues.
  • Adverse shifts in trade policies of government.

Courtesy:  Arsalan Mir,

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Five Tips For Motivating Employees

While expecting employees to perform at a high level is definitely not an unreasonable expectation, it still is not always going to be the case in mostbusinesses. There are a number of cases where employees let up in their job performance a bit or other circumstances arise that make the level of productivity tail off some. During these and other times, often what is missing is proper motivation. Here are five tips designed to motivate employees to continue performing at the level they are expected to.
Positive Attitude
Employees who regularly work in a workplace that either has an overall negative attitude or for a manager that has a negative attitude will at some point let it affect their job performance. A manager canmotivate the employeesbeneath them very efficiently by simply instituting a positive attitude in the workplace and also exhibiting that positive attitude regularly. Employees naturally want to work in a workplace with a positive attitude.
In the same department as positive attitude, getting the proper encouragement from a manager or supervisor is necessary for some employees to operate at a high level. Many times employees who are merely informed of their job responsibilities and then are given no feedback until a project is complete feel that they are not given enough encouragement along the way. While it may not be a necessity, if a few simple words can make an office or workplace more productive, then it is definitely something that should be done.
Listening Skills
One of the easiest ways for a manager to motivate their employees is to simply improve and utilize their listening skills. When an employee feels like their thoughts and ideas are being listened to, they will feel they are more apart of a project or overall business process and work harder. An employee who knows that their views are valued and sought out is a more motivated employee as they know they have another avenue for impressing their manager and possibly influencing the career path.
Utilize Everyone
Another easy way for a manager or business owner to motivate employees is to make sure that everyone is utilized to their fullest abilities. When one or two employees are not brought in on a project or process, they feel like they are not valued as highly and this may demotivate them in terms of how much effort they put into the projects or responsibilities they do have. By utilizing everyone, a manager not only motivates their employees by showing they are all valued to some degree, but he also maximizes the work output by having everyone possible involved in some way or another.
When Possible, Provide Incentives
Though it may not always be possible, and it may not be feasible on every project, it can sometimes pay off to have incentives that an employee can take advantage of if a certain amount of work is done or a certain level is accomplished. Incentives can be anything from a higher commission and cash bonuses to something smaller like a catered lunch for the employees or even a gift card to a local restaurant. Incentives can sometimes be announced ahead of time and can also be presented to the employees afterwards as a thank you for their hard work. Presenting incentives as a thank you actually has the effect of motivating employees towards the next project or process.
While motivating employees is not always easy, it is a very useful thing to do when done right. There are a number of reasons why an employee or even an entire department may need to be motivated from time to time. They could be feeling overworked, they could have recently undergone personnel changes or questionable disciplinary actions, or they could just be suffering from burnout. Motivating these employees in a realistic and acceptable way is a great way that a manager can improve the productivity of their department and each employee in particular.


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5 Simple Ways to Increase Your Intelligence

Your brain needs exercise just like a muscle. If you use it often and in the right ways, you will become a more skilled thinker and increase your ability to focus. Here are 5 simple techniques to exercise your brain.

Minimize Television Watching
-- Watching television doesn't use your mental capacity OR allow it to recharge. When you feel like relaxing, try reading a book instead. If you're too tired, listen to some music. When you're with your friends or family, leave the tube off and have a conversation.

Exercise -- Time spent exercising always leads to greater learning because it improves productivity during the time afterwards. Using your body clears your head and creates a wave of energy.

Read Challenging Books
-- If you want to improve your thinking and writing ability you should read books that make you focus. Reading a classic novel can change your view of the world and will make you think in more precise, elegant English.

Early to Bed, Early to Rise
-- Nothing makes it harder to concentrate than sleep deprivation. You'll be most rejuvenated if you go to bed early and don't sleep more than 8 hours.

Take Time to Reflect -- Spending some time alone in reflection gives you a chance organize your thoughts and prioritize your responsibilities. Afterwards, you'll have a better understanding of what's important and what isn't.

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Try This.


You have to try this please, it takes 2 seconds. I could not believe this!

It is from an orthopaedic surgeon..... This will confuse your mind and you will keep you trying over and over again to see if you can outsmart your foot, but you can't. It is pre-programmed in your brain!

1. While sitting in front of your computer, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles.

2. Now, while doing this, draw the number '6' in the air with your right hand. Your foot will change direction.

I told you so! And there's nothing you can do about it
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What is 5G ?

Dear All,
Our organization has arranged a contest, having topic "Imagine 5G" and i am participating in it.
Telecom gradation is mostly identified by there bit-rate. 1G was only voice, 2g was 256 Kbps, 3G is 2 Mbps and 4G is 70 Mbps or more..
Will 5G also identified by the same criteria (Bit rate, may be in Gbps or Tbps).
My feeling is generating Bitrates only will not benefit but
Telcos need Consumer Applications using this large bitrates to make proper Business case and Eco-cycle.
Does any have whitepaper of Teclco's roadmap to 5G ?
Please share any details regarding 5G.

I take your point. Increasing the bit rate always can increase the users' satisfaction. But the thing is that in economics, we have the concept of "diminishing marginal utility". Further increasing the bit rate without any other improvements might not raise too much users' satisfaction while it may require huge amount of investment. Therefore, we need some other types of improvements to attract the people to buy the 5G products or subscribe the 5G services.
I haven't read any material about 5G either but I think it's interesting to imagine the future wireless communications. Perhaps, it may involve a better integration with our daily life by allowing more flexible and complex network topology. For instance, more advanced vehicular networks might be crucial to the future vehicles which do not require drivers as well as the road safety. Wireless sensor network may help increasing the efficiency of power consumptions of houses with low deployment cost. I guess by relaxing the constraint of the conventional cellular topology, more interesting applications can be introduced.
nteresting thought and yes, 5G could be defined by services provided or available rather than only speed. As such from a regulatory point of view 5G could be seen as a service rather than a technology (or technologies as is the case with 3G. 4G seems destined to be defined as at least 2 technologies.)
There continues to be push back from national wireless regulators on calling 3G/4G (also known as IMT-2000, IMT-Advanced or after WRC-07 simply IMT) a service. Under the International Radio Regulations a service has a different status than a technology application which is the current regulatory view of 3G/4G. From a technology development perspective being considered a technology application may not seem relevent but from an operator's marketing perspective it could be significant. How would they differentiate their investment in 5G from another operator's enhanced 4G offering?
As the "5G" development process moves along it would be useful to begin work to change the regulatory view of IMT from an application to being a service. Or is simply being considered an "evolved 4G" technology application good enough?

I agree that 5G may be defined as a service and not on the bitrates. In any case, there is also the case that for enhanced bit rates, i.e. for more than what is considered for LTE-Advanced, there would be the need to allocate more radio spectrum. For that matter it would be quite difficult to find out a certain chunk of spectrum that could be enough to provide even more high data rates than what "4G" promises unless some other technologies are discontinued and still then ITU-R must designate that spectrum for an additional technology which takes still considerable time.

Cellular technology migrations from 0G to 4G happened not only based on throughput. Also based on services provided as many of the people mentioned here.
0G -> PTT, MTS, IMTS -> Only voice (Analog mobile communication system, NOT cellular communication system).
1G -> AMPS, NMT, TACS, etc. -> Only voice, Analog cellular communication, uses simple FM modulation. Uses only FDMA
2G -> GSM ->Mainly voice, less Data (max. 14.4kbps), Circuit switching, Digital cellular communications, uses GMSK moduations. Uses FDMA/TDMA
2.5G -> GPRS -> Only Data, Packet swithching technology, Digital cellular communications, uses GMSK with 4 ceding schemes (CS1 - CS4). Max. 171kbps theoritically. FDMA/TDMA
2.5G+ -> EDGE -> Data only, Packet Switching, Digital Cellular system, uses GMSK, 8PSK with 9 coding schemes (MCS1-MCS9). Max. 473kbps theoritically. FDMA/TDMA
3G -> UMTS -> Voice and Data. Circuit/Packet switching, W-CDMA. Uses BPSK, QPSK, and 16QAM also. Max. 2Mbps
3.5G -> HSUPA/HSDPA -> Data, WCDMA, higher Bandwidth, Uses BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM.
4G -> LTE -> (Now it is replaced by WiMAX as LTE is still under construction). WiMAX -> upto 70Mbps, OFDMA technology, sclable bandwidth upto 20MHz. Uses QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM.
Services also improved from only voice to SMS, MMS, Internet browsing, video conferencing, Mobile TV..
What can be achieved higher than this in 5G with respect to technology, throughput and services?
May be.. Technology point of view, 8x8 MIMO, Adaptive modulations, Cooperative diversity techniques, perfect Link adaptation/Power control algorithms, Incremental redundancy, can be improved. (Everything is available in 4G itself). But this can be fine tuned. Should provide 500Mbps with full mobility (say 300km/h).
Wavelet modulation instead of OFDM modulations can be used in flat fading environment.
Services point of view, video conferencing with fast mobility etc..

Courtesy: LTE-3GPP: linkedin

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by Craig Mindrum
Coaching and mentoring can be effective ways to help diamonds in the rough - employees who appear to have potential, but who are underperforming for one reason or another.
David Joyner, executive vice president of sales and account services for pharmaceutical services company Caremark, said he occasionally sees employees who are "a bit rough on the edges. In many cases they are incredibly talented people, but they need refinement in a few specific areas that are holding them back."
A 360-degree feedback tool is one way to get them to notice those areas, but Joyner said, "They also need the personal coaching and modeling that shows them the right way. I've had some cases where we've had middle-of-the-road salespeople become our top performers, year in and year out. It's because they got that coaching and feedback early on in their careers."
Bruce Fisher, director of the Leadership Academy at Illinois Institute of Technology and director of an organizational psychology consulting practice, makes an important distinction between objectives for coaching and those for mentoring.
"Coaching is to a great degree targeted around specific developmental opportunities, or even behavioral issues with employees," Fisher said. "It's driven primarily by the organization's agenda and needs. With mentoring, on the other hand, the employee or protege takes on a role almost like a client; it's about his or her needs and career development. Mentoring takes more of a whole-person approach and thus is highly personalized to an individual."
That need for personalization becomes challenging when designing and delivering leadership development programs, however. Coaching has general lessons and thus can be incorporated into leadership training. Mentoring, on the other hand, can actually suffer if it's treated as a program.
"You can't structure a mentoring experience, match people up willy-nilly and tell them to go do it," Fisher said. "Research suggests mentoring is not effective when administered that way. An authentic mentoring experience is based on chemistry, charisma and mutual values; it happens or doesn't happen as part of the natural workings of a relationship." Can mentoring be taught? Maybe.
"There are certain types of leaders who have it in them to mentor effectively," Fisher said. "And there are others who just don't care about it and who aren't good at it. I don't think it's necessarily impossible to turn those people into effective mentors, though certainly it's difficult."
[About the Author: Craig Mindrum, Ph.D., is a strategic talent management consultant.]

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One of the most important components of public speaking is the sound of your voice. It influences the impact of your message, and might even make or break the success of your speech. Fortunately, for many people, good voice quality can be learned.

Instructions :

  1. Breathe from your diaphragm - Practice long and controlled exhales. When you speak, use breath to punctuate your point. For example, take a breath at the end of each phrase whether you need to or not. Use that opportunity to pause and let the listeners absorb what you say.
  2. Use pitch - Lower pitches generally are more soothing to hear. However, modulating your pitch for emphasis will keep your listeners engaged. Develop your pitch by practicing humming.
  3.  Moderate your volume - Find out if you speak too loudly or too softly. When you begin speaking, ask your audience how your volume is (each situation is different). Try to stay at the appropriate volume throughout your speech.
  4. Moderate your pace - This one is also closely related to breath. If you speak too quickly, people can't keep up. If you speak too slowly, people will lose interest. Record your speech to determine if you need to change your pace. Get feedback from others.
  5. Articulate - Try exaggerating your lip movement to reduce mumbling. Practice articulating tongue twisters and extending and exaggerating vowel sounds. Become an expert at articulating tongue twisters as quickly and crisply as possible. Focus on the ones you find difficult.
  6. Practice your speech in advance and determine where you want to pause for a breath. For more emphasis, pause for more than one breath. Mark your breathing points in your notes.
  7. Loosen up before you begin. Look side to side. Roll your head in half-circles and roll your shoulders back. Shift your rib cage from side to side. Yawn. Stretch. Touch your toes while completely relaxing your upper body, then slowly stand up, one vertebra at a time, raising your head last. Repeat as needed.
  8. Posture - Stand up straight and tall to allow full lung capacity and airflow.
  9. Record your voice repeatedly using different ways of speaking. Determine which one is most pleasing.
  10. Practice breath control - Take a deep breath, and while you exhale, count to 10 (or recite the months or days of the week). Try gradually increasing your volume as you count, using your abdominal muscles—not your throat—for volume. Don't let your larynx tense up.

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The Mindset
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As my friend was passing the elephants, he suddenly stopped, confused by the fact that these huge creatures were being held by only a small rope tied to their front leg. No chains, no cages. It was obvious that the elephants could, at anytime, break away from the ropes they were tied to but for some reason, they did not. My friend saw a trainer nearby and asked why these beautiful, magnificent animals just stood there and made no attempt to get away.

"Well," he said, "when they are very young and much smaller we use the same size rope to tie them and, at that age, it's enough to hold them. As they grow up, they are conditioned to believe they cannot break away. They believe the rope can still hold them, so they never try to break free." My friend was amazed. These animals could at any time break free from their bonds but because they believed they couldn't, they were stuck right where they were.

Like the elephants, how many of us go through life hanging onto a belief that we cannot do something, simply because we failed at it once before?

So make an attempt to grow further.... Why shouldn't we try it again?

Your attempt may fail, but never fail to make an attempt!

Never accept the false boundaries and limitations created by the past.

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You have slaved long and hard in a functional role, rising to "manager of accounting" or "maintenance manager" or "HR manager" or any number of other management roles.  Now you want to move up a step to General Manager*. 


What do you need to do now to prove that you are ready for the move up?  Here is what I look for in a potential General Manager.


Leadership skills

I look for evidence that a candidate has demonstrated most of the following skills in his or her current role:


  • Business acumen - understanding the basic drivers of our business and comfort with the three basic financial reports (P&L statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement) and ratio analysis
  • Thinking strategically
  • Planning, budgeting and cost control
  • Driving for, and getting results through others, including executing strategic and tactical plans
  • Developing resources, especially people and teams - including hiring, firing, retaining and developing direct reports (monthly coaching sessions are one great tool for making this happen)
  • Workplace culture development
  • Delegation and follow-through - and keeping commitments
  • Learning on the fly
  • Influencing, and building trust
  • Conflict resolution
  • Communicating effectively - in writing, on the phone, over email, in person, in front of groups
  • Listening
  • Managing change
  • Making decisions at the appropriate level of risk
  • Priority setting
  • Problem solving - alone, and with others
  • Self-awareness and self-development


Functional knowledge


I look for deep knowledge in at least one functional area.  In addition, I want to see that the candidate has stretched out in order to have an impact on other functions.  For example, a manager of operations should have shown the ability to add value on sales calls.  Functions you should be aware of and be able to contribute ideas to might include:


  • Human Resource management
  • Accounting and finance
  • IT
  • Environmental controls
  • Engineering
  • Logistics
  • Maintenance
  • Manufacturing/operations
  • Purchasing
  • Sales and Marketing
  • Customer service and order fulfillment
  • External relations

If you are aspiring to a GM role, what are you doing to demonstrate these skills and knowledge?  If you are already a GM, what would you add or take away from this list?


*A general manager usually has responsibility for all aspects of one segment of the business:  finance, accounting, sales and marketing, human resources, operations, purchasing and so one.