January 2018
no image
Self Improvement, Wisdom, Professionalism, Inspirational Stories, Positivity, Leadership, Management, Stress, Optimism and Peace, Productivity.

Theory X and Theory Y - Understanding People's Motivations


What do you think motivates your people to come to work each morning?
Do you believe that they get great satisfaction from their work and take pride in doing the best possible job? Or do you think that they see it as a burden, and simply work for the money?

These assumptions about your team members can have a significant influence on how you manage them.

In the 1960s, social psychologist Douglas McGregor developed two contrasting theories that explained how managers' beliefs about what motivates their people can affect their management style. He labelled these Theory X and Theory Y. These theories continue to be important even today.
This article and video will explore McGregor's theory further, and we'll look at how it applies in the workplace.

Theory X assumes that people dislike work and are not motivated to do a good job.

Understanding Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y were first explained by McGregor in his book, 'The Human Side of Enterprise,' and they refer to two styles of management – authoritarian (Theory X) and participative (Theory Y).

If you believe that your team members dislike their work and have little motivation, then, according to McGregor, you'll likely use an authoritarian style of management. This approach is very "hands-on" and usually involves micromanaging people's work to ensure that it gets done properly. McGregor called this Theory X.

On the other hand, if you believe that your people take pride in their work and see it as a challenge, then you'll more likely adopt a participative management style. Managers who use this approach trust their people to take ownership of their work and do it effectively by themselves. McGregor called this Theory Y.
The approach that you take will have a significant impact on your ability to motivate your team members. So, it's important to understand how your perceptions of what motivates them can shape your management style.
We'll now take a more in-depth look at the two different theories, and discover how and when they can be useful in the workplace.

Theory X

Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are naturally unmotivated and dislike work. As a result, they think that team members need to be prompted, rewarded or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks.
Work in organizations that are managed like this can be repetitive, and people are often motivated with a "carrot and stick" approach. Performance appraisals and remuneration are usually based on tangible results, such as sales figures or product output, and are used to control staff and "keep tabs" on them.
This style of management assumes that workers:
  • Dislike their work.
  • Avoid responsibility and need constant direction.
  • Have to be controlled, forced and threatened to deliver work.
  • Need to be supervised at every step.
  • Have no incentive to work or ambition, and therefore need to be enticed by rewards to achieve goals.
According to McGregor, organizations with a Theory X approach tend to have several tiers of managers and supervisors to oversee and direct workers. Authority is rarely delegated, and control remains firmly centralized. Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done.
Although Theory X management has largely fallen out of fashion in recent times, big organizations may find that adopting it is unavoidable due to the sheer number of people that they employ and the tight deadlines that they have to meet.

Theory Y

Theory Y managers have an optimistic, positive opinion of their people, and they use a decentralized, participative management style. This encourages a more collaborative, trust-based relationship between managers and their team members.
People have greater responsibility, and managers encourage them to develop their skills and suggest improvements. Appraisals are regular but, unlike in Theory X organizations, they are used to encourage open communication rather than control staff.
Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion.
This style of management assumes that workers are:
  • Happy to work on their own initiative.
  • More involved in decision making.
  • Self-motivated to complete their tasks.
  • Enjoy taking ownership of their work.
  • Seek and accept responsibility, and need little direction.
  • View work as fulfilling and challenging.
  • Solve problems creatively and imaginatively.
Theory Y has become more popular among organizations. This reflects workers' increasing desire for more meaningful careers that provide them with more than just money.
It's also viewed by McGregor as superior to Theory X, which, he says, reduces workers to "cogs in a machine," and likely demotivates people in the long term.
Most managers will likely use a mixture of Theory X and Theory Y. You may, however, find that you naturally favor one over the other. You might, for instance, have a tendency to micromanage or, conversely, you may prefer to take a more hands-off approach.
Although both styles of management can motivate people, the success of each will largely depend on your team's needs and wants and your organizational objectives.
You may use a Theory X style of management for new starters who will likely need a lot of guidance, or in a situation that requires you to take control such as a crisis.
But you wouldn't use it when managing a team of experts, who are used to working under their own initiative, and need little direction. If you did, it would likely have a demotivating effect and may even damage your relationship with them.
However, both theories have their challenges. The restrictive nature of Theory X, for instance, could cause people to become demotivated and non-cooperative if your approach is too strict. This may lead to high staff turnover and could damage your reputation in the long term.
Conversely, if you adopt a Theory Y approach that gives people too much freedom, it may allow them to stray from their key objectives or lose focus. Less-motivated individuals may also take advantage of this more relaxed working environment by shirking their work.
If this happens, you may need to take back some control to ensure that everyone meets their team and organizational goals.
Circumstance can also affect your management style. Theory X, for instance, is generally more prevalent in larger organizations, or in teams where work can be repetitive and target-driven.
In these cases, people are unlikely to find reward or fulfillment in their work, so a "carrot and stick" approach will tend to be more successful in motivating them than a Theory Y approach.
In contrast, Theory Y tends to be favored by organizations that have a flatter structure, and where people at the lower levels are involved in decision making and have some responsibility.

Warning

Your assumptions and how you assess your people's needs and wants will likely be the biggest influencers on your management style. However, it's important that you challenge your assumptions and review your team members' individual requirements regularly. This will allow you to adapt your approach appropriately.

Tip:

If you feel that an alternative approach would motivate your team better, you can explore other management models, such as Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory, McClelland's Human Motivation Theory, Sirota's Three-Factor Theory, and Amabile and Kramer's Progress Theory. Our article on Transformational Leadership can also give you tips on how to inspire and motivate your people.

Key Points

The concept of Theory X and Theory Y was developed by social psychologist Douglas McGregor. It describes two contrasting sets of assumptions that managers make about their people:
  • Theory X – people dislike work, have little ambition, and are unwilling to take responsibility. Managers with this assumption motivate their people using a rigid "carrot and stick" approach, which rewards good performance and punishes poor performance.
  • Theory Y – people are self-motivated and enjoy the challenge of work. Managers with this assumption have a more collaborative relationship with their people, and motivate them by allowing them to work on their own initiative, giving them responsibility, and empowering them to make decisions.
Though your assumptions about what motivates your people will likely have the biggest impact on which of these two approaches you take, your choice can also be shaped by several other factors. These include your organizational structure (tiered or flat), the type of work that your people do (repetitive or challenging), and their skill level (amateur or experienced).
 
This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!
 
Self Improvement, Wisdom, Professionalism, Inspirational Stories, Positivity, Leadership, Management, Stress, Optimism and Peace, Productivity.


Health challenges are inevitable in the life of every human being. At a point or the other in the life of an average human being; you will be requested to visit your physician for one ailment or the other. In times like that, the patient is at the mercy of the medication prescribed by the doctors and administered by the nurses.

There Are Limits In The Medical Profession

The doctor diagnoses the ailment and will prescribe the medication that is in line with the treatment of the ailment. The potency of your doctor’s prescription is tied to the efficacy of the pharmaceutical company that manufactured the drug. Where the company is competent, all will go well according to plans. In a situation where the company involved is not total in approach, then there will be health issues to contend with after taking the medication.

You Need To Do A Little Research

When the doctor prescribes a biospecimen for you; it's your duty to carry out a check on the integrity or otherwise of the company involved. There are cases of patients who take such medications and they did not get desired relief. Some other patients take it and they have serious complications at the end of it all. You cannot blame your doctor; it is his duty to prescribe and yours to make sure the assurance is doubly sure.

You Have The Tools

Yes, the ball is in your very courts in this age of the internet. You get all the information that will be useful to locate the very best among the pharmaceutical companies that are available today. One of such reliable companies is BioChain. They have been in the business of producing clinical health products for the benefit of all. Their health products are programmed to give the patient the desired peace of mind that will restore back holistic health at the end of the day without adding anything negative to it.

The Profile Is A Key Factor

One key determining factor that separates a health provider that will perform from the rest is the reputation that such a provider has over the years in the industry. What are their strides like? When you get to the web pages of a service provider where you are expected to see all and you only read about carefully worded sales content that lacks real substance; that should give you enough red signal to retrace your steps. There must be practical actions before you can trust with your health.

Their Profile

BioChain has a solid profile of performances in the industry. They have gained a reputation that is solid in the industry. That is why they are proud to flaunt the examples of projects that they have completed for top pharmaceutical companies as well as Diagnostics. Their system service where they collect samples; have them processed and finally analyzed goes a lot to speak about the credibility of this service provider. They are top rated in the industry at least for the meantime.

We hope all the above information will help you to know about Biospecimen. You can see things for yourself by clicking at total RNA by Biochain.
Picture credit: Pixabay
Self Improvement, Wisdom, Professionalism, Inspirational Stories, Positivity, Leadership, Management, Stress, Optimism and Peace, Productivity.
Having haters is a part of life. Hate comes in a variety of forms and can come from friends, family members, coworkers, classmates, associates and even random internet trolls.

Haters are the ugly side of success. If you have anything going for yourself, you’ve experienced hate. Whether you are intelligent, thin, curvy, in a relationship, single, have kids, or love your job, you are going to have haters. You hear the snide comments, see the random side-eyes, read the hateful comments under a social media post. You feel the tension when you try to discuss a recent win with a friend and then you find out that there are people dogging you behind your back.

Most people will tell you to just ignore your haters. They say that it’s just a part of life that you have to learn to deal with especially if you plan to do big things. And while that is accurate and sound advice, there is a way to turn some of your haters into friends.

The magic of asking for a favor

The quickest and easiest way to turn a hater into a friend is to ask them for a favor. It’s a well researched psychology technique called the Ben Franklin Effect1. When you ask people who dislike you to help you out, it shifts their perception of the relationship and makes them view you as a friend instead of a foe.


 


Favors are for friends. You don’t usually do a favor for an enemy or someone you deeply dislike. It all has to do with cognitive dissonance. According to cognitive dissonance theory,2 there exists a tendency for people to establish consistency in their beliefs, values and opinions. When attitudes and behaviors become inconsistent, dissonance occurs.

The brain needs to eliminate the dissonance. The brain behaves as an outside observer. It continually watches and evaluates your actions and then contrives explanations for why you do what you do. Dissonance occurs most often in situations where an individual must choose between two incompatible beliefs or actions. So, in this case the reasonable belief is that favors are for friends. When you ask a hater for a favor, you create dissonance and the hater has to change their perception of you in order to perform the ask and eliminate the inconsistency.

Asking for a favor is also a subtle form of flattery. Dale Carnegie’s book How to Win Friends and Influence People suggests that requesting a favor allows the hater to feel that they have something we don’t. It levels the playing field in their mind. It also makes the hater feel admired and respected. They then not only want to help you but will also begin to see you differently. The hate dissipates.

Turn haters into friends

Asking a hater for a favor requires humility and a bit of thought. The favor should be something small enough that it is easily performed but not so trivial that it seems more of an insult than a favor. This means that you should consider the strengths, weaknesses, intellect and ability level of the person you are asking.
If it’s someone you don’t know, keep the ask simple. Borrowing some change at the vending machine or some other small item, asking them for assistance with an app on your smartphone or asking them to recommend a restaurant or other establishment are all great favors to ask for.
When you make your request, remember to ensure it sounds like you really need the favor and value the person’s help. Keep your tone humble and your body language open. And be sure you express your appreciation and gratitude for their help.
This technique is not just for haters. It works well with people you may not know well such as a colleague, mild acquaintance and even your secret crush. The simple action–making a small and reasonable request–can be the catalyst that transform a hater into a friend.
Experiencing hate as you work to become your best self is inevitable. Turning every hater into a friend isn’t a practical goal but you can befriend some. Simply humbling yourself, and asking for assistance in the form of a favor, is the first step in changing them from foe to friend.
Self Improvement, Wisdom, Professionalism, Inspirational Stories, Positivity, Leadership, Management, Stress, Optimism and Peace, Productivity.
economics

1. Talk to your children about money and show them how you manage it

2. Chores for pocket money 

3. Make financial decisions as a family 


• There is no doubt that it is difficult to teach small children such a principle, but the ability to postpone gratification can predict how children will manage with money when they become adults. Therefore, children of these ages should learn that if they really want something, they have to wait and save to make it possible for themselves. In these moments you have to be tough and not make up the difference in order for them to buy what they want

• At this young age, you should explain to them the real reason why you aren’t buying them something. Instead of saying that you do not have money, you should say that right now you are not in the store to buy them a particular item. In this way, they will soon realize that not every shopping trip means they need to get something..

• Make sure that the product they are saving for is not too expensive so that they eventually can afford it. A creative and highly recommended way to help them save is to place three jars - each with a different sticker: one to “save”, the other to “spend,” and the third to “share”. Now, each time your children receive pocket money, the final amount must be divided equally between the three jars, so they will be able to control their expenses more easily, they can experience the feeling of waiting, learn to be more patient, and know how to save for important things.
• At these ages, it is important to explain to children that wise choices must be made before spending the money, and that once it is removed, it will not return to the savings jar. As in the previous step, you must be careful to distribute the money between the three jars, while being very clear about what the money is being saved for.

• You can go a step further and give your child 10 dollars when you are in the supermarket, asking him to make the right and most worthwhile decision when purchasing produce. When doing this, use questions to guide him or her such as: "Is this a vegetable that we really need?" "Is it possible that elsewhere we can buy the same vegetable at a cheaper price?" And so on. These actions are designed to give children the experience of making daily financial decisions which will give them a sense of security when they have to make similar financial decisions later on in life. 
• At this age, you can move from the idea of saving for short-term goals towards long-term goals. Show them their ability to invest their money in a savings account which will give them interest. These ages are characterized by children’s desire to buy here and now, which causes them to avoid long-term investment, so it is important that you present them this option most clearly by calculating the money they could save if they opened a savings plan.

• For many, it may seem that 11 is too young to start talking about a savings plan, mainly because children do not yet have a bank account, but you can help them with this. One option is to allow them to deposit money into your account and you manage the interest that they receive. Another option is to go to the bank and ask them about kid savings plan, many banks offer this service.
economics

5. Allow them to experiment with the credit card 

 6. Allow them to experiment with smart investments 

economics

7. Instill in them a sense of entrepreneurship